Expanding leaflets of young `Kennebec' potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L.) develop visible necrotic spotting after 8 to 9 days of constant light and constant temperature, but little is known about this disorder before the appearance of injury. Whole-leaf autoradiography and iodine staining of terminal leaflets (5 to 10 mm long at the beginning of the constant-light period) showed a normal pattern of CO2 assimilation and starch content over the entire leaflet surface after 5 days of constant light. However, small areas of tissue devoid of CO2 assimilation and starch content became apparent on day 6, and these areas expanded to encompass much of the leaflet's medial and basal regions by day 7. At this stage of leaf development, on day 7, leaflets had attained 50% of their final leaflet length and ceased importing photosynthates from other leaves. Electron micrographs of chloroplasts from the medial and basal regions of leaflets on day 7 revealed a loss of membrane integrity and a senescence-like appearance. At this time, and within these affected regions, scattered groups of necrotic palisade cells began to appear. These scattered groups soon expanded in size and distribution and became apparent as visible necrotic spots on the upper leaflet surface by day 8 or 9. Leaflets on plants grown under constant light hut alternating temperatures, an environment known to be noninjurious, did not exhibit visible spotting or tissue devoid of starch content. In addition, none of these injury symptoms developed in `Denali', a potato cultivar tolerant of constant light. Despite its occurrence in expanding leaf tissue, constant-light injury appears to be a senescence-like event that leads to the catastrophic loss of photosynthetic competence, starch content, and chloroplast membrane integrity, producing chlorosis and necrosis of leaves and eventually stunting the plant.
Kent E. Cushman, Theodore W. Tibbitts, Thomas D. Sharkey and Robert R. Wise
Lori J. Bushway and Marvin P. Pritts
Effects of early spring cultural practices and microclimate manipulation on `Jewel' strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) plant development, carbohydrate reserves, and productivity were measured in the field and under simulated early spring conditions in growth chambers. With traditional winter straw mulching practices of the northeastern and midwestern United States, starch content of overwintering leaves, crowns, and roots in the field declined by 51%, 78% and 69%, respectively, during late winter and early spring. There was also a net loss in root biomass over winter and no new leaf growth before mid-April, suggesting that carbohydrate reserves could be limiting plant performance during the critical early growth and flowering phase in spring. In growth chambers, exposure to CO2 levels between 700 to 1000 mL·L-1 significantly increased photosynthetic rates of overwintering and spring leaves compared to ambient CO2 levels. Elevated CO2 in growth chambers also accelerated flower development, reduced depletion of starch reserves in roots, and increased starch accumulation in crowns. In the field, early removal of straw and application of spunbonded rowcover accelerated plant development, increased starch accumulation in the leaves, and increased photosynthetic rates of overwintering and spring leaves. Elevating the CO2 levels under rowcover further increased photosynthetic rates and advanced plant development and starch accumulation, but not significantly above rowcover alone. Carbohydrate losses later in the season during flower development were reduced when rowcover was applied in early spring. Total fruit yield was as much as 48% higher for plants under rowcover in early spring than those that had no cover and an additional 9% higher when CO2 was elevated. Yield improvements were attributed mostly to an increase in the number of marketable secondary and tertiary fruit than to an increase in mean fruit size. The economics of rowcover use is favorable if the material is reused. The added expense of CO2 gas and the resulting marginal gains would not make field CO2 enrichment an economically viable practice for strawberry growers using the method herein.
Xuan Liu and Catherine Grieve
treatments. Starch reserves were also examined to provide more comprehensive information on Limonium nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation in response to salinity. Materials and Methods Plant materials and growth conditions. The study
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Joan R. Davenport
Information on growth and carbon partitioning of cranberry uprights in response to soil N application is lacking. Therefore, two experiments were initiated on `Stevens' uprights to determine the effect of soil-applied N on tissue N, growth, net carbon exchange (NCER), and nonstructural carbohydrate production of uprights of `Stevens' cranberry. Tissue N concentration increased linearly with increasing soil N but was greater in vegetative uprights than in fruiting uprights. Current season growth on vegetative uprights was more responsive to tissue N than on fruiting uprights. Although chlorophyll concentration and NCER increased with increased soil N, upright starch concentration and often total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration decreased with increased soil N at midfruit development and preharvest, especially in vegetative uprights.
Seppo Sorvari, Otto Toldi, Katriina Ahanen, Tuula Viinamäki, Tiina Hakonen and Risto Tahvonen
Somatic embryos that are produced in cell and tissue culture conditions do not form endosperm and testa around the embryo. For many envisioned applications, delicate embryos need to be covered with an artificial endosperm-testa matrix that allows for respiration, contains nutrients and protectants, and is hard enough but allows the vague embryo to germinate and grow into a plant. A number of industrially produced and commonly available compounds were tested to determine their efficacy in supporting the germination of encapsulated somatic embryos of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Most of the combinations of galactomannans and polysaccharides were at least as effective as calcium alginate alone in germinating the embryos. The disappearance of blue color in Lugol staining around embryos indicates that starch might also provide nourishment to embryos, thus serving as an artificial endosperm and a supportive matrix.
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel and Joan R. Davenport
Carbohydrate supply has been hypothesized to limit fruit set in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.), however the limitations to carbon gain throughout the season are currently unknown. These experiments investigated the effects of light, temperature, fruit presence, and defoliation on carbon production and partitioning in potted cranberry. Fruiting and vegetative uprights (short vertical stems which bear fruit biennially) reached similar asymptotes with respect to light response, but fruiting uprights reached saturation at a lower light intensity than vegetative uprights. Runners (diageotropic vegetative stems) had a lower asymptote, higher light compensation point, and greater rate of dark respiration than uprights. Temperature had little effect on net carbon exchange rate of uprights or runners. Before new growth, defoliation did not affect the concentration of total nonstructural carbohydrates in the vegetative uprights, or the partitioning of soluble carbohydrates to starch, even though uprights with lower leaf areas had higher net CO2 assimilation. At fruit set and again at fruit maturity, defoliation reduced total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration, while net CO2 assimilation was not affected. Carbohydrate production and partitioning within an upright was unaffected by the presence of a single fruit throughout the experiment.
P. Inglese, T. Caruso, G. Gugliuzza and L.S. Pace
Effect of crop load on dry matter partitioning was studied on 3-year-old peach [(Prunus persica (L.) Batsch (Peach Group)] trees of the early ripening `Early May Crest' (EMC) grafted on `GF677' and Penta (Prunus domestica L.) rootstock and the late ripening `Flaminia' grafted on `GF677' rootstock [(Prunus persica × Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb] and grown outdoors in 230-L containers, for 2 years. Fruit thinning was carried out 10 days after fruit set to produce different crop loads. Trees were sampled destructively throughout two growing seasons and divided into above-ground and root components, for dry matter and carbohydrate analysis. At the end of the fruit development period, in the first year, total tree dry matter accumulation was related linearly to crop load even when the increase in crop load greatly decreased vegetative and root growth. Total dry matter accumulation was highest in EMC/`GF 677' at any specific crop load, and EMC trees on `GF677' allocated relatively more dry matter than EMC/`Penta' trees to vegetative and root growth, even under increasing fruit sink demand. Two consecutive years of heavy crops resulted in an inverse relationship between crop load and dry matter accumulation of trees, due to a major reduction of vegetative, root, and fruit growth. The percentage of dry matter partitioned to fruit decreased with the vigor of the rootstock, and EMC/`Penta' trees had the lowest harvest index at each specific crop load. The early ripening EMC/`GF677' trees which had twice the harvest index of `Flaminia'/`GF677' trees for any level of crop load. `Flaminia'/`GF677' trees had the largest canopy size. Starch content in the roots was lowest for cropping trees and depended on the rootstock and on the length of the fruit development period, being highest for the late ripening `Flaminia'/`GF677' trees. Individual fruit weight decreased with crop load, and the reduction of fruit size was related to rootstock and time of ripening.
Rebecca L. Darnell, Horacio E. Alvarado-Raya and Jeffrey G. Williamson
acidity (as citric acid equivalents) was calculated as described by Garner et al. (2003) with a millequivalent factor of 0.064 for citric acid. Carbohydrate analysis. Soluble sugars and starch in roots, floricanes (laterals, cane, and fruits
Jeanine M. Davis and Wayne H. Loescher
Diurnal fluctuations in soluble carbohydrates and starch were monitored in young (expanding), mature (first fully expanded), and old (nearing senescence) celery (Apium graveolens L.) leaves. In all tissues, mannitol and sucrose were the carbohydrates present in the highest concentrations. In old and young leaflets and their petioles, there was little change in levels of mannitol and sucrose in 26 hours. In mature leaflets, sucrose accumulated in the light and decreased in the dark; mannitol increased slightly in late afternoon. Starch concentration, although quite low, showed definite diurnal fluctuations in mature leaflets, but only small changes in young and old leaflets. Both sucrose and mannitol were present in mature petiole phloem tissues. Mannitol concentrations were high in the adjacent storage parenchyma tissue, but sucrose was almost undetectable. These data support earlier findings that sucrose is produced, translocated, and metabolized throughout the celery plant. Mannitol is also translocated, but also serves as a major storage carbohydrate in leaf tissues, especially petiole parenchyma. Starch serves as a minor short-term storage compound in leaflets.
Keryl Jacobi, Janet Giles, Elspeth MacRae and Teresa Wegrzyn
In an effort to develop an inexpensive alternative to vapor-heat insect disinfestation of `Kensington' mango (Mangifera indica Linn.), the effect of postharvest hot water treatments (HWT) on fruit quality was determined. Fruit were given 46C HWT for 30 minutes at a fruit core temperature of 45C either 24 hours after harvest or after various conditioning treatments of 4 to 24 hours at 39 ± 1C in air. Fruit were compared to nontreated fruit after a subsequent 7 days at 22C. The HWT increased fruit softening and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence and disease incidence. The longer conditioning times produced softer fruit. Conditioning reduced damage to the fruit caused by HWT. Preconditioning for ≥8 hours resulted in <1% of fruit being damaged as shown by cavities, skin scald, and starch layer formation. The quantitatively measured higher mesocarp starch content paralleled the visible starch layer injury. Skin yellowing increased in response to HWTs that were not damaging to the fruit. Fruit ripening changes were unequally affected by HWT and by conditioning before HWT; thus, the sequence and extent of these changes must be determined to establish a reliable and useful hot water disinfestation treatment.