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Several orchard floor management strategies were evaluated beginning in Fall 1993 in a `Limoneira 8A Lisbon' lemon (Citrus limon) grove on the Yuma Mesa in Yuma, Ariz. and in a `Valencia' orange (Citrus sinensis) grove at the University of Arizona Citrus Agricultural Center, Waddell, Ariz. At Yuma, disking provided acceptable weed control except underneath the tree canopies where bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus), and other weed species survived. Mowing the orchard floor suppressed broadleaf weed species allowing the spread of grasses, primarily bermudagrass. Preemergence (norflurazon and oryzalin) and postemergence (glyphosate and sethoxydim) herbicides were used to control weeds in the clean culture treatment in Yuma. After three harvest seasons (1994-95 through 1996-97), the cumulative yield of the clean culture treatment was 385 kg (848.8 lb) per tree, which was significantly greater than the 332 kg (731.9 lb) and 320 kg (705.5 lb) per tree harvested in the disking and mowing treatments, respectively. In addition, the clean culture treatment had a significantly greater percentage of fruit in the 115 and larger size category at the first harvest of the 1995-96 season than either the disk or mow treatments. At Waddell, the management strategies compared were clean culture (at this location only postemergence herbicides were used), mowing of resident weeds with a vegetation-free strip in the tree row, and a `Salina' strawberry clover (Trifolium fragiferum) cover crop with a vegetation-free strip. The cumulative 3-year yield (1994-95 through 1996-97) of the clean culture treatment was 131 kg (288.8 lb) per tree, which was significantly greater then the 110 kg (242.5 lb) per tree yield of the mowed resident weed treatment. The yield of the strawberry clover treatment, 115 kg (253.5 lb) of oranges per tree, was not significantly different from the other two treatments. The presence of cover crops or weeds on the orchard floor was found to have beneficial effects on soil nitrogen and soil organic matter content, but no effect on orange leaf nutrient content. The decrease in yield in the disked or mowed resident weed treatments compared to the clean culture treatment in both locations was attributed to competition for water.

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/sand fraction. This fraction was then mixed with washed sand [grain diameter 0.25–0.5 mm (Sakrete Multi-Purpose Sand; Sakrete, Charlotte, NC)] in a cement mixer in proportions ≈0% (pure sand), 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 4% organic matter by weight. Random samples of the

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) with soil organic matter of 1.5%. The study, which was conducted in 2014 and 2015, observed similarly managed neighboring plots within an ongoing 4-year rotation scheme and followed USDA National Organic Program standards. Fertilizer with 10N-0.9P-6.6K

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management practices can increase organic matter additions, soil fertility, and enhance beneficial soil organisms, potentially reducing the amount of synthetic fertilizer inputs in conventional systems. As fumigation and pesticide restrictions increase

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and organic farms matched by soil type indicated that organic practices improved soil quality ( Liebig and Doran, 1999 ). This included a 22% increase in organic matter, 20% more total N, lower bulk density, and higher water holding capacity. Nutrient

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accumulation and weed suppression, there are many other benefits from including a cover crop into a cropping system such as carbon fixation, organic matter production, increasing/diversifying microbial populations, disrupting disease/insect/weed cycles, water

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located in the designated region where Vidalia ® sweet onion is commercially produced. The soil was a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults), composed of 88% sand, 6% silt, and 6% clay, with 0.5% organic matter; The

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considerably with production sites and cultivation systems. As organic matter decomposition and nitrogen mineralization rates are subject to environmental conditions, nitrogen availability was found to be the main yield-limiting factor in organic systems ( Pang

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sources. Considerations on soil pH and organic matter content modifications to improve absorption were presented.

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a result, strategies using integrated pest management (IPM) or “organic” practices have garnered increased attention as management alternatives ( Alumai et al., 2008 ). Some individual consumers and public institutions have adopted alternative lawn

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