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entire cane, elaborate trellises that separate primocanes from floricanes and enhance light penetration into the lower canopy serve little purpose. Annual removal of all canes after fall fruiting also helps break insect and pathogen life cycles, assisting

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-pigmented flecks in the outer flesh on the sun-exposed side of the fruit, but there is little or no red in the flesh at the pit. Flesh texture is smooth and without strings but is clingy to the pit even when fully ripe. Flesh is firm with good sweetness (10% to 12

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Salvia (Salvia splendens) `Red Vista' or `Purple Vista,' french marigold (Tagetes patula) `Little Hero Orange,' bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) `Better Bell,' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) `Accent White,' and wax begonia (Begonia ×semperflorens-cultorum) `Cocktail Vodka' were grown in 0.95-L (1-qt) containers using a 5 pine bark: 4 sedge peat: 1 sand substrate (Expts. 1 and 2) or Pro Mix BX (Expt. 2 only). They were fertilized weekly with 50 mL (1.7 fl oz) of a solution containing 100, 200, or 300 mg·L-1 (ppm) of nitrogen derived from 15N-6.5P-12.5K (1N-1P2O5-1K2O ratio) or 21N-3P-11.7K (3N-1P2O5-2K2O ratio) uncoated prills used in the manufacture of controlled-release fertilizers. Plants grown with Pro Mix BX were generally larger and produced more flowers or fruit than those grown with the pine bark mix. With few exceptions, plant color, root and shoot dry weights, and number of flowers or fruit were highly correlated with fertilization rate, but not with prill type. There appears to be little reason for using the more expensive 1-1-1 ratio prills, since they generally did not improve plant quality and may increase phosphorous runoff from bedding plant nurseries.

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‘Kokanee’ ( Fig. 1 ) is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry ( Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State

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increasing. Red pomegranate cultivars are among the most commercially valuable cultivars because of their appealing red skin color and their good taste. One of the more recognized and popular pomegranate cultivars is ‘Wonderful’, with red fruit skin and dark-red

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Abstract

The activities of the enzymes polygalacturonase, α-d-mannosidase, and α-d- and β-d-galactosidase in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) pericarp tissue were measured during ripening of two normal ripening cultivars, Sweet 100 and ACE 55 VF, the slow-ripening alcobaca mutant, and their F1 progeny. The activity of polygalacturonase increased as the fruit ripened from mature green to red stages for all tomato lines (‘Sweet 100 > ‘Sweet 100’ × alcobaca > ‘ACE 55 VF’ > ‘Ace 55 VF’ × alcobaca > alcobaca). Of the other enzymes, α-mannosidase showed the greatest quantitative differences between the tomato lines and consistently increased in activity during ripening. There was, however, no association between the activity of α-d-mannosidase and polygalacturonase. The highest β-galactosidase activity occurred in ‘Sweet 100’, but was generally similar in the other lines. The activity of α-galactosidase varied little between parents and progeny for any stage of ripeness.

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Poor coloration of red grapes grown in warm regions is a frequent problem that decreases production efficiency. Most table grape growers use ethephon to improve color, but its influence on color development is erratic, and it may reduce berry firmness. Application of S-abscisic acid (ABA) to grapes can increase the anthocyanins in their skins, but no protocols have been established regarding its potential commercial use. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of ABA and ethephon treatments on fruit quality characteristics, including those related to firmness and color, on `Flame Seedless' grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in several experiments over three consecutive seasons. Abscisic acid had few effects on berry weight or juice composition, but it increased berry softening and skin anthocyanin concentrations. The effect of ABA on berry firmness was similar to ethephon. With respect to skin anthocyanin concentration and fruit color characteristics, 300 mg·L–1 ABA applied at veraison was superior to the other ABA concentrations and to ethephon applied at any of the times tested. Moreover, any concentration of ABA between 75 and 300 mg·L–1 applied after veraison improved color better than ethephon applied at the same time. There was a highly significant inverse curvilinear relationship between skin anthocyanin concentration and the lightness and hue of the berries. Anthocyanin concentrations between 0.01 and 0.04 mg·cm–2 had little effect on berry lightness and hue, so researchers should consider measuring color, not just anthocyanins, when evaluating the quality of red table grapes.

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Young bearing spur (Red-Spur Delicious) and standard (Top-Red Delicious) type apple trees were given one of the following treatments: 120g N applied to the ground in spring (SG), 120g N applied to the ground one month before harvest (PG), 60g N sprayed on the foliage after harvest (FF), 60g N SG and 60g N PG, or 60g N SG and 60g N FE Urea and NH4NO3 depleted in 15N (0.01 atom percentage 15N) were used for foliar and ground applications, respectively. Very little labeled N was present in leaves and fruit with PG applications, but roots, bark, and buds contained substantial amounts of it. Nitrogen from the FF sprays was effectively translocated to buds and bark. Percentage of N from the fertilizer in Sept leaves from spur-type trees that had only 60 g of N in spring was 56% higher than that found in standard-type trees. This figure rose to 180% with 120 g N spring application. Mature fruit showed the same trend. Spur-type trees appeared more responsive to N management practices. In contrast to the above ground structure, small roots of standard-type trees showed more label than those of spur-type trees. The difference was bigger with SG applications. Partitioning of N in the roots was apparently affected by the scion.

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. Castagnoli, and A. Castagnoli. Gala × A3-7; USPP 24,091; 17 Dec. 2013. Fruit: conic, 71 mm height x 82 mm diameter, smooth skin with little bloom, ruby red blush over yellow-green ground color; firm, crisp, juicy, flesh with slightly acidic taste. Tree

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