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crops are needed. A dependable method to estimate crop water requirements is a simple procedure whereby water lost by soil evaporation and plant transpiration, referred to collectively as crop evapotranspiration (ET c ), is calculated by multiplying

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this treatment, the trees were irrigated once a week at the full rate of evapotranspiration (ETc) for apple starting in 2002. During the period of this study (2008–11), ETc values for fully mature trees were used. Method for ETc calculation is described

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evapotranspiration (ET a )] and deficit irrigation (0.3 × ET a ). ET a was determined by weighing and calculating the mean mass change of three fully watered (1.0 × ET a ) lysimeters within each of the three water source treatments. Irrigation was then supplied at

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Evapotranspiration from tall fescue, perennial ryegrass and zoysiagrass turfs during the summers of 1992-3 was compared to evapotranspiration estimates from an evaporation pan, a black Bellani plate, and several empirical combination models, Actual measurement of turf water use was made with small weighing lysimeters. Soil was maintained at field capacity. Data were collected on 51 dates between June and September. Tall fescue was clipped weekly at 7.6 cm whereas ryegrass and zoysiagrass were clipped 3 times weekly at 2.5 cm, Although differences between the grass species existed, in general the rankings of estimate precision were Bellani plate > evaporation pan > empirical models when compared with measured evapotranspiration rates.

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(ASABE) has recently defined mixed-species landscape water use normalized to reference evapotranspiration as plant factors, rather than crop coefficients ( ASABE, 2012 ; Beeson et al., 2014 ; Sun et al., 2012a ). The new S623 Standard attempts to define

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under hot-dry climatic conditions and improved salinity tolerance ( Carrow 1996 ; Marcum and Pessarakli 2006 ; Serba et al. 2022 ). Overall, the average evapotranspiration (ET) rate for bermudagrass is 5.51 mm⋅d –1 ( Colmer and Barton 2017 ); however

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al., 2017 ). A summary and brief review of these UC-led studies follows. Evapotranspiration adjustment factor (ETAF) study . California implemented water conservation legislation that required reductions in urban and agricultural water usage ( CDWR

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depletion were higher in 2020 than in 2019. Table 3. Effect of deficit irrigation levels and cultivars on soil water depletion, evapotranspiration (ET), yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) of cucumber in 2019

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planting of drought-tolerant species ( Lockett et al. 2002 ). The urban green space provides several ecosystem services, including cooling benefits on warm days ( Masoudi et al. 2021 ). Evapotranspiration (ET) is the underlying cooling mechanism in the

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Net photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates of tomato (LAI = 2.3) and lettuce (LAI = 6.6) plug sheets were estimated based on measurements of the weight of plug sheets and vertical profiles of CO2 concentration above the plug sheets. The measurements were continued in situ for several days in a greenhouse when plugs were at transplant stage. The maximum net photosynthetic rates of tomato and lettuce plug sheets were 0.8 and 2.0 mg CO2/m2 per sec on a plug sheet area basis, respectively. The maximum evapotranspiration rates of those sheets were 100 mg·m–2·s–1. Net photosynthetic and evapotranspiration rates of tomato and lettuce plug sheets increased linearly with an increase in solar radiation flux, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9.

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