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Sergio Castro-Garcia, Uriel A. Rosa, Christopher J. Gliever, David Smith, Jacqueline K. Burns, William H. Krueger, Louise Ferguson and Kitren Glozer

greater energy input for shaking tall trees ( Horvath and Sitkei, 2001 ). Furthermore, the detachment force required to remove unripe, small olives, averaging 3 to 6 g each, from pendulous willowy shoots is generally excessive ( Kouraba et al., 2004

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Fumiomi Takeda and Jorge Soria

because the fruit are positioned on one side of the trellis. In the latest RCA trellis design, the primocanes are bent at a height of ≈18–22 inches to force them to grow horizontally and when the primocane terminals reach the adjacent plant they are tipped

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unaffected. Fruit had lower instrumental firmness (0.53 N) and lower sensory firmness, but higher juiciness and less pitting. There also was a substantial reduction in stem-pull force, resulting in a higher incidence of stem detachment in harvested Skeena

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Louise Ferguson and Sergio Castro Garcia

that accompanies fruit maturity. The immature olives seldom have a detachment force less than 2 N and usually as high as 10 N ( Ferguson et al., 2010 ). Additionally, the olives are small, weigh less than 0.5 oz, and bruise easily. However, ‘Manzanillo

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Edward W. Bush and Pamela B. Blanchard

between children and the outdoors, “In the space of a century, the American experience of nature has gone from direct utilitarianism to romantic attachment to electronic detachment.” Given this detachment, garden programs also serve to increase children

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R. Karina Gallardo, Eric T. Stafne, Lisa Wasko DeVetter, Qi Zhang, Charlie Li, Fumiomi Takeda, Jeffrey Williamson, Wei Qiang Yang, William O. Cline, Randy Beaudry and Renee Allen

could help lead to advancements in developing cultivars better suited for machine harvest. Handheld shakers have been used on a small number of farms (Haven Harvesters, personal communication), but varying fruit detachment response among cultivars showed

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Long He, Jianfeng Zhou, Qin Zhang and Manoj Karkee

harvester using a rapid displacement actuator to apply impact force to the main scaffold to remove sweet cherries from trees. Despite the continuous research and development efforts over the past six decades, no mechanical harvester is commercially available

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Adrian D. Berry, Steven A. Sargent, Marcio Eduardo Canto Pereira and Donald J. Huber

the force was recorded at 2.5 mm deformation on opposite sides of the equatorial region of each fruit. Maximum force generated during probe travel was used for firmness values. Avocados were considered full-ripe when whole fruit firmness decreased to

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Ana Morales-Sillero, Pilar Rallo, María Rocío Jiménez, Laura Casanova and María Paz Suárez

equipment ( Rejano et al., 2008 ). Low fruit removal efficiency is usually related to fruit retention force, something that also depends on cultivar. This force is greater in green than in fully ripe fruits and therefore more energy is required to detach the

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R. Karina Gallardo, Qi Zhang, Michael Dossett, James J. Polashock, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona, Nicholi Vorsa, Patrick P. Edger, Hamid Ashrafi, Ebrahiem Babiker, Chad E. Finn and Massimo Iorizzo

are increasingly interested in using machine harvesting to harvest blueberries to be sold in the fresh market ( Takeda et al., 2008 ). Firm fruit, suitable bush architecture, easy detachment of mature berries vs. immature berries, loose fruit clusters