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Chenping Xu and Beiquan Mou

al., 2008 ). Composting is an aerobic process that relies on high temperatures, thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria to sanitize, decompose and stabilize organic material, which primarily are municipal or agricultural wastes. The main uses of composts

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Courtney D. DeKalb, Brian A. Kahn, Bruce L. Dunn, Mark E. Payton and Allen V. Barker

declining in availability and increasing in price ( Sterrett, 2001 ). Compost has been suggested as a possible substitute to reduce both the environmental impact of harvesting peatmoss and costs for growers ( Bugbee and Frink, 1989 ; Sterrett, 2001

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Dan TerAvest, Jeffrey L. Smith, Lynne Carpenter-Boggs, Lori Hoagland, David Granatstein and John P. Reganold

management are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of cultivation, wood chip mulch, and a legume cover crop on tree growth, partitioning of compost N at different application timings, and fertilizer-use efficiency

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Monica Ozores-Hampton

are cover crops, compost, and raw manures ( Ozores-Hampton et al., 2012 ). Incorporating cover crops into vegetable production may enhance the sustainability of the system by recycling unused nutrients from previous vegetable crops, improve soil

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Yuqi Li and Neil S. Mattson

feedstocks and methods for producing organic fertilizers are extremely variable, which results in different components and physiochemical properties among different organic fertilizers. Many traditional organic fertilizers are produced as composts or other

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Yin-Tung Wang and Thomas M. Blessington

1 Assistant Professor. 2 Professor and Center Director. Poinsettia cuttings were donated by Paul Ecke Poinsettias, Encinitas, Calif. Composted cotton burrs and partial financial support were provided by Back to Earth Resources, Dallas, Texas

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Elsa S. Sánchez, Ermita Hernández, Mark L. Gleason, Jean C. Batzer, Mark A. Williams, Timothy Coolong and Ricardo Bessin

( Clark et al., 1999 ; Pimentel et al., 2005 ), in part because nutrient sources generated on the farm, such as compost, release nutrients slowly. Nutrient availability is also unpredictable; for example, N mineralization rates depend on soil temperature

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Paige L. Herring, Abbey C. Noah and Helen T. Kraus

, providing no nutrients as media, and is acidic. As a result, much research has focused on alternative resources for peat in the greenhouse industry ( Abad et al., 2001 ; Ostos et al., 2008 ; Raviv et al., 1998 ). Composts have also proved to suppress soil

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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Thomais-Evelina Kapsali, Maria-Pinelopi Kaltsidi, Liebao Han and Shuxia Yin

., 2006 ), heat-expanded slate ( Olszewski et al., 2010 ), Pum ( Ntoulas et al., 2012 , 2013b ), and lava ( Nektarios et al., 2003 ; Tsiotsiopoulou et al., 2003 ). Organic substances, such as peat and composts, have also been used, but at a smaller

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Bernadine C. Strik, Amanda Vance, David R. Bryla and Dan M. Sullivan

., 2003b ; Strik et al., 2017a ; Williamson et al., 2006 ), which may affect soil properties and nutrient availability. Growers are inclined to use plant or animal-based composts in organic production systems. Compost can release 3% to 10% of total N for