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‘NuMex R Naky’ has been released as a high yielding, long, wide, smooth-fruited chile (Capsicum annuum L.). ‘NuMex R Naky’ is adapted to southern New Mexico; it sets fruit under high day temperatures and low relative humidity. ‘NuMex R Naky’ fruit have a high concentration of extractable red color and exhibit low pungency. ‘NuMex R Naky’ is recommended for home and commercial production of green and red chile in New Mexico.

Open Access

Micropropagated chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis) plants were transferred to ex vitro conditions to study plantlet performance and selected physiological changes that occur during acclimatization and post-acclimatization. The physiology of the plantlets was characterized by measuring leaf gas exchange and water status. Plant growth was determined by assessing plant height, leaf number, total leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), and leaf, root, and stem dry mass. Measurements were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 days after transplanting. After initial transplanting ex vitro to liner pots with soilless media, plantlet wilting was observed that correlated with reduced leaf relative water content (RWC). Water stress was partially alleviated by a reduction in stomatal conductance (gs), confirming that the in vitro formed stomata were functional and able to regulate transpiration (E) to minimize desiccation losses. Because of this stomatal control, plantlets had minimal transplant shock, recovered, and survived. Prior to transplanting, micropropagated plantlets showed heterotrophic/mixotrophic characteristics as indicated by low photosynthesis [(A) 4.74 μmol·m2·s-1]. During acclimatization, RWC, gs, E, and A were significantly lower 2 days after transplanting. However, within 6 days after transplanting, plantlets recovered and became autotrophic, attaining high A (16.3 μmol·m-2·s-1), gs, and E. The stabilization and improvement of plantlet water status and gas exchange during acclimatization and post-acclimatization closely correlated with dramatic increases in plantlet growth.

Free access

The inheritance of capsaicinoid content was studied in five Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav. genotypes using diallel analysis. General combining ability and specific combining ability effects were significant for all capsaicinoids studied, indicating additive and nonadditive gene actions are present. The association of high capsaicinoid contents with high positive general combining ability of the parents also indicates the predominance of additive gene action in capsaicinoid inheritance. Because of the predominant additive gene effect, recurrent selection would be a good breeding method to increase capsaicinoid level in the population studied. Heterosis was observed in hybrids for some of the capsaicinoids, suggesting that F1 hybrids could also be used to increase capsaicinoid content.

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Accessions of Capsicum annuum L., a susceptible host, and C. pubescens (R. & P.), a resistant host, were grown in a replicated greenhouse study to test whether antixenosis (nonpreference), antibiosis, or both was the mechanism for resistance to green peach aphid [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)]. A plant choice experiment established that aphids preferred C. annuum to C. pubescens. A no-plant choice test was not undertaken; nevertheless, the aphid's reproductive rates were measured in leaf containment cages and were similar on both hosts. The mechanism of antibiosis was not indicated because fecundity was not reduced in the containment cages; however, other measures of antibiosis were not studied. These observations suggest that antixenosis may be functioning in C. pubescens.

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Domesticated chile (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) is a widely cultivated spice and vegetable crop. It originated in the Western Hemisphere, but spread rapidly throughout the globe after the voyage of Columbus. However, very little is known about the genetic diversity of chile in Asia and especially in Nepal. Thus, research was conducted to document morphological as well as molecular characterization of C. annuum var. annuum landraces collected from Nepal. Genetic diversity in C. annuum var. annuum landraces from Nepal was investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and compared with that of C. annuum var. annuum landraces from the center of diversity, Mexico. RAPD marker based cluster analysis of C. annuum var. annuum clearly separated each accession. All accessions of C. annuum var. annuum from Nepal grouped into a single cluster at a similarity index value of 0.80, whereas, accessions from Mexico grouped into eight different clusters at the same similarity level indicating greater genetic diversity in Mexican accessions. RAPD analysis indicated that the Nepalese chile population went through an additional evolutionary bottleneck or founder effect probably due to intercontinental migrations. Some Nepalese accessions had unique RAPD markers suggesting that additional sources of genetic variation are available in Nepalese germplasm.

Free access

An improved high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for analysis of capsaicinoids in dried Capsicum fruit powder, involving changes in extraction, mobile phase, flow rate, and excitation and emission spectra and resulting in reduced analysis time, increased sensitivity, and safety, is reported. Extraction of Capsicum fruit powder using acetonitrile proved to be the best capsaicinoid extractor in the shortest time interval. Solvents used for HPLC separation and quantification of capsaicinoids include methanol and water at 1 ml·min–1 flow rate. Instrument sensitivity is enhanced by altering the fluorescence detector excitation and emission wavelengths. Two analytical methods have been developed. One method determines total amount of heat units in 7 minutes, while the other provides total amount of heat units as well as separation of all present major and minor capsaicinoids in 20 minutes. These improved techniques provide inexpensive and rapid methods for quantitative and qualitative analysis of capsaicinoids in Capsicum fruit samples along with good sensitivity and no interference or confounding peaks.

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Pungency, caused by the presence of capsaicinoids, is a major quality-determining factor in chile (CapsicumL. sp.) The inheritance of nordihydrocapsaicin, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, isomer of dihydrocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin has not yet been determined. Generations mean analysis revealed that additive, dominance, and interaction effects were significant for capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and isomer of dihydrocapsaicin in an interspecific hybridization of C. annuum L. × C. chinense Jacq. A simple additive-dominance model was sufficient to explain the genetic variation for nordihydrocapsaicin and homodihydrocapsaicin. Except dihydrocapsaicin and isomer of dihydrocapsaicin in the BCP1 family, the values of backcross families shift toward the recurrent parents. Because of the significant additive gene effect and the tendency of the values of the capsaicinoids at backcross families to shift toward the recurrent parents, repeated backcrossing and selection will increase and decrease (depending on the recurrent parent) the capsaicinoid content. Positive genetic correlations were observed between the capsaicinoids and the values ranged from 0.4 to 0.8. The estimated number of effective factors were 0.4 for nordihydrocapsaicin, 0.6 for homodihydrocapsaicin, 0.9 for isomer of dihydrocapsaicin, 1.1 for dihydrocapsaicin, 2.8 for total capsaicinoids, and 6.2 for capsaicin. Different gene actions and a different number of effective factors involved in the capsaicinoids inheritance imply that different genes are controlling the synthesis of each capsaicinoid.

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