been used as an alternative to overseeding with cool-season grasses to improve color and quality of hybrid bermudagrasses ( Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis ) and manilagrass ( Zoysia matrella ) during winter dormancy ( Briscoe et al., 2010 ; Liu
Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) requires few inputs and provides high-quality turf in the transition zone, but is expensive to sprig or sod. Establishment by seed is less expensive than vegetative establishment, but little is known about renovation of existing turf to zoysiagrass using seed. Two experiments were performed to determine effects of herbicides and seeding rates on establishment of zoysiagrass in Indiana and Kentucky. In the first experiment, interseeding zoysiagrass into existing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) without the use of glyphosate before seeding resulted in 2% zoysiagrass coverage 120 days after seeding (DAS). In plots receiving glyphosate before seeding, zoysiagrass coverage reached 100% by 120 DAS. In the second experiment, MSMA + dithiopyr applied 14 days after emergence (DAE) or MSMA applied at 14+28+42 DAE provided the best control of annual grassy weeds and the greatest amount of zoysiagrass establishment. Applying MSMA + dithiopyr 14 DAE provided 7% less zoysiagrass coverage compared to MSMA applied 14 DAE at one of the four locations. Increasing the seeding rate from 49 kg·ha-1 to 98 kg·ha-1 provided 3% to 11% more zoysiagrass coverage by the end of the growing season at 3 of 4 locations. Successful zoysiagrass establishment in the transition zone is most dependent on adequate control of existing turf using glyphosate before seeding and applications of MSMA at 14+28+42 DAE, but establishment is only marginally dependent on seeding rates greater than 49 kg·ha-1. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate); monosodium methanearsenate (MSMA); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(triflurormethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate (dithiopyr).
'Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) is a popular turfgrass species for transition zone golf course fairways and tees because it is generally winter hardy while providing an excellent playing surface with minimal chemical and irrigation inputs. However, its functionality declines readily on many of the shaded areas on these courses. Reduced irradiance causes excessive shoot elongation, reduced tillering, and weak plants that are poorly suited to tolerate or recover from traffic and divoting. Trinexapac-ethyl (TE) effectively reduces gibberellic acid (GA) biosynthesis and subsequent shoot cell elongation. The objective of this study was to determine if monthly applications of TE would reduce shoot elongation of 'Meyer' zoysiagrass and improve stand persistence under two levels of shade. Shade structures were constructed in the field that continuously restricted 77% and 89% irradiance. A mature stand of 'Meyer' was treated with all combinations of three levels of shade (0%, 77%, and 89%) and three levels of monthly TE application [0, 48 g·ha-1 a.i. (0.5×), and 96 g·ha-1 a.i. (1×)] in 1998 and 1999. In full sun, the 0.5×-rate reduced clipping production by 17% to 20% over a four-week period and the 1×-rate by 30% to 37%. Monthly application of TE at the 1×-rate increased 'Meyer' tiller density in full sun and under 77% shade. Both rates of TE consistently reduced shoot growth under shade relative to the shaded control. Only the monthly applications at the 1×-rate consistently delayed loss of quality under 77% shade. The zoysiagrass persisted very poorly under 89% shade whether treated or not with TE and plots were mostly dead at the end of the experiment. Our results indicate TE can be an effective management practice to increase 'Meyer' zoysiagrass persistence in shaded environments. Chemical name used: 4-cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl)
Sprigs of `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) were treated with urea nitrogen, a biostimulator, and one of three preemergence herbicides or one of two postemergence herbicides to hasten establishment in two field studies. Monthly application of N at 48 kg·ha–1 during the growing season had no influence on sprig establishment the first year, but slightly increased (+5%) zoysiagrass cover the second year. Presoaking sprigs in a solution containing (mg·L–1) 173 auxin and 81 cytokinin, and iron at 1.25 g·L–1 before broadcasting of sprigs, and biweekly sprays (g·ha–1) of 53 auxin and 24 cytokinin, and iron at 0.2 g·L–1 or (g·ha–1) 68 auxin and 36 cytokinin, and iron at 1.45 g·L–1 after broadcasting sprigs had no effect on zoysiagrass cover or rooting. Preemergence and postemergence herbicide use generally enhanced zoysiagrass cover by reducing smooth crabgrass competition [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb. ex Schweig) Schreb. ex Muhl]. Oxadiazon enhanced zoysiagrass coverage more than dithiopyr, pendimethalin, quinclorac, or fenoxaprop. Oxadiazon and dithiopyr provided similar levels of crabgrass control, but dithiopyr reduced `Meyer' zoysiagrass midsummer root growth. Chemical names used: 3,5,-pyridinedicarbothioic acid, 2-[difluromethyl]-4-[2-methyl-propyl]-6-(trifluoromethyl)-S,S-dimethyl ester (dithiopyr); [±]-ethyl 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-benzoxazolyl)oxy]phenoxy] propanoate (fenoxaprop); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); 3,7-dichloro-8-quin-olinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).
Warm-season turfgrasses are grown throughout the warm humid, sub-humid, and semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation of six warm-season turfgrass species and several of their cultivars to Mediterranean growing conditions of Turkey by evaluating turfgrass establishment rate, quality, color, and percentage of turfgrass cover. Information of this nature is lacking and would be helpful to turfgrass managers and advisers working in the region. A study was conducted over a 2-year period in two locations of the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The warm-season turfgrass species studied were bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiurioides). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was included as a cool-season turfgrass species for comparison. Twenty cultivars belonging to these species were evaluated for their establishment, turfgrass color and quality, spring green-up, and fall color retention. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and seashore paspalum established 95% or better coverage at 1095 growing degree days [GDD (5 °C base temperature)], buffalograss and centipedegrass at 1436 GDD, and ‘Zenith’ and ‘Companion’ Zoysiagrass had 90% and 84% coverage at Antalya after accumulating 2031 GDD. ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; ‘SWI-1044’, ‘SWI-1045’, ‘Princess 77’, and ‘Riviera’ bermudagrass; ‘Cody’ buffalograss; and ‘Zenith’ zoysiagrass exhibited acceptable turfgrass quality for 7 months throughout the growing season. ‘Argentine’ and ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass; ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; and ‘SWI-1044’ and ‘SWI-1045’ bermudagrass extended their growing season by retaining their green color 15 days or longer than the rest of the warm-season cultivars and/or species in the fall. The warm-season species stayed fully dormant throughout January and February. Zoysiagrass and buffalograss cultivars showed early spring green-up compared to the other warm-season species studied. Results from this study support the use of warm-season turfgrass species in this Mediterranean region, especially when heat stress and water limitations exist. Tall fescue did not survive summer heat stress necessitating reseeding in fall.
Zoysiagass (Zoysia japonica) use continues to expand on golf courses, home lawns, and sports fields in the transition zone. Unfortunately, the slow growth rate of the species and long establishment period have limited its use to those sites that can afford zoysiagrass sod. The development of sprig-planting techniques that can produce a zoysiagrass turf in a single season would considerably increase the use of this desirable species. A study was conducted over 2 years at two different regions in Arkansas to evaluate the efficacy of a new zoysiagrass net-planting technique (ZNET) on establishment of zoysiagrass from vegetative sprigs. The technique involves rolling the sprigs onto the site in cotton netting and top-dressing the sprigs with 1.0 cm (0.4 inch) of native soil. This technique was compared to a standard sprig-planting technique and a standard sprig planting that was also top-dressed with 1.0 cm of native soil. The standard treatments were planted according to established methods using freshly-harvested sprigs applied at a rate of 70.0 m3·ha-1 [800 bushels (1000 ft3) per acre]. Rate of turfgrass cover was monitored throughout the growing season. The ZNET planting technique significantly improved establishment over the traditional sprigging technique and the turf reached about 85% cover by the end of the growing season (120 days). Top-dressing a traditionally sprigged area with native soil also improvedestablishment compared to traditional sprigging and was comparable to the ZNET technique. It was concluded that the ZNET technique did improve establishment rates of zoysiagrass, but the same results could be attained by top-dressing sprigs that were planted with a standard planter.
Canopy reflectance has the potential to determine turfgrass shoot status under drought stress conditions. The objective of this study was to describe the relationship of turf quality and leaf firing versus narrow-band canopy spectral reflectance within 400 to 1100 nm for different turfgrass species and cultivars under drought stress. Sods of four bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon L. × C. transvaalensis), three seashore paspalums (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), and st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and three seeded tall fescues (Festuca arundinacea) were used. Turf quality decreased 12% to 27% and leaf firing increased 12% to 55% in 12 grasses in response to drought stress imposed over three dry-down cycles. The peak correlations occurred at 673 to 693 nm and 667 to 687 nm for turf quality and leaf firing in bermudagrasses, respectively. All three tall fescues had the strongest correlation at 671 nm for both turf quality and leaf firing. The highest correlations in the near-infrared at 750, 775, or 870 nm were found in three seashore paspalums, while at 687 to 693 nm in Zoysiagrass and st. augustinegrass. Although all grasses exhibited some correlations between canopy reflectance and turf quality or leaf firing, significant correlation coefficients (r) were only observed in five grasses. Multiple linear regression models based on selected wavelengths for turf quality and leaf firing were observed for 7 (turf quality) and 9 (leaf firing) grasses. Wavelengths in the photosynthetic region at 658 to 700 nm or/and near-infrared from 700 to 800 nm predominated in models of most grasses. Turf quality and leaf firing could be well predicted in tall fescue by using models, evidenced by a coefficient of determination (R 2) above 0.50. The results indicated that correlations of canopy reflectance versus turf quality and leaf firing varied with turfgrass species and cultivars, and the photosynthetic regions specifically from 664 to 687 nm were relatively important in determining turf quality and leaf firing in selected bermudagrass, tall fescue, zoysiagrass and st. augustinegrass under drought stress.
Understanding turfgrass physiological responses to deficit irrigation will help explain potential effects of this practice on turf quality and subsequent stresses. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of deficit irrigation growth and physiology of ‘Falcon II’ tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) and ‘Meyer’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud). Turf was subjected to deficit irrigation levels of 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of actual evapotranspiration (ET) from June to Sept. 2001 and 2002 in Manhattan, Kans. In an earlier study, minimum deficit irrigation levels required to maintain acceptable quality (MDIL) were determined. We compared growth and physiological parameters at these MDIL with turf irrigated at 100% ET. Tall fescue had a lower canopy vertical growth rate (30% lower), canopy net photosynthesis (Pn, 14% lower), and whole-plant respiration (Rw, 11% lower) in 1 of 2 years when irrigated at the MDIL compared with 100% ET; tiller number was not reduced at the MDIL. Water use efficiency (μmol CO2 per mmol H2O) in tall fescue increased by 15% at the MDIL relative to turf receiving 100% ET in 1 of 2 years. In zoysiagrass, the MDIL had no effect on any of the growth or physiological parameters measured. Reductions in canopy vertical growth rate at the MDIL in tall fescue during deficit irrigation would likely reduce mowing requirements. Across all deficit irrigation levels, Pn was more sensitive to deficit irrigation in both grasses than was Rw, which could potentially contribute to declines in canopy vertical growth rate, tiller number, and turf quality. Zoysiagrass exhibited higher water use efficiency than tall fescue, particularly at irrigation levels 60% or more ET.
Reclaimed water (RW) is increasingly viewed as a valuable resource for supplying irrigation water and nutrients for landscape plants growing in urban environments. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine if nitrogen (N) in RW contributes significantly to turfgrass plant nutrition and to measure N use efficiency and the effects of irrigation with RW on N leaching. The factorial experiment was replicated four times and conducted in a greenhouse on the University of Florida campus for 1 year using ‘Floratam’ st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) and ‘Empire’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica). Treatments included irrigation with tap water (control), irrigation with RW from University of Florida wastewater treatment facility, irrigation with RW with additional N supplied from ammonium nitrate to achieve 5, 9, and 13 mg·L−1 N solutions, and a dry prilled fertilizer treatment based on the recommended N application rate for turfgrass in northern Florida. The average total N and phosphorus (P) concentrations of RW, based on 1 year weekly monitoring were 3.31 mg·L−1 total N with 2.14 mg·L−1 nitrate-N and 0.46 mg·L−1 ammonium-N, and 2.00 mg·L−1 P composed of 1.92 mg·L−1 orthophosphate. Turfgrass growth responded positively (P < 0.05) to N concentration in the irrigation water. The concentration of N in the unamended university campus RW was not sufficient for optimal turfgrass growth. Grass quality and turfgrass clippings yield maximized when the total N concentration in the irrigation water was at least 5 mg·L−1. Turfgrass receiving dry synthetic N fertilizer resulted in greater growth and 2-fold greater N leaching than with the remaining treatments for both turf types. The highest N recovery percentage for both turf types was found when the N concentration in the solution was 5 mg·L−1.
A truly soilless turfgrass sod may be produced on kenaf-based (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fiber mat that offers the integrity of field-cut sod without the use of mineral soil growing medium. This research was conducted to determine the feasibility of producing warm-season turfgrass sod on such a biodegradable organic mat. Seeded turfgrass plots contained 4.9 lb/1000 ft2 (24 g.m−2) of pure live seed planted on a 66-lb/1000 ft2 (325-g.m−2) organic fiber mat carrier placed atop either 66- or 132-lb/1000 ft2 (325- or 650-g.m−2) organic fiber mats. In an experiment using vegetative material, stolons were applied at rates of 16.4 ft3/1000 ft2 (0.82 L.m−2) over 132- or 198-lb/1000 ft2 (650- or 975-g.m−2) organic fiber mats and covered with a rayon scrim. All plots were placed on 6-mil black plastic. Nitrogen was applied at 0.9 lb/1000 ft2 (4.4 g.m−2) weekly in addition to a monthly micronutrient application. Bermudagrass (Cynodon σππ.) had quicker establishment than other grasses in the study, with stolonized and seeded plots achieving ≈100% coverage by 9 weeks in 1995 and 6 weeks in 1996, respectively. By 15 weeks after planting in 1995, the plot coverage ratings for seeded centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack. `Common'] and all stolonized grass plots of centipedegrass, zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud. `Meyer'), and St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze `Raleigh'] were 91% or higher. The results were much less favorable in 1996 than 1995 due to a later planting date and an irrigation failure.