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improves resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses ( Ma, 2004 ). Pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the most important cash crops grown in the Mediterranean region because it is widely consumed and popular. Recent studies have shown that pepper can

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, reduce soil erosion, increase water infiltration, decrease nutrient loss by leaching, attract beneficial insects, suppress weeds, and/or suppress soilborne pathogens ( Magdoff and Van Es, 2009 ). In New Mexico, where chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L

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In a 3 × 3 factorial experiment, Chile Ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis) plants were inoculated or not with VA - mycorrhizal (VAM) Glomus fasciculatum and a Glomus sps isolate from Mexico (ZAC-19). Long Ashton Nutrient solution (LANS) were modified to supply P at II, 22 or 44 μg/ml to containerized plants, grown in a greenhouse for 72 days. The container medium was a modified 77% sand, 13% silt, 9% clay soil collected from an agricultural production site in Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. Both P and VAM enhanced plant growth and development. Increasing P enhanced leaf area, fruit, shoot and root dry weight and shoot/root ratio; the leaf area ratio (LAR) decreased. Greater VAM growth enhancement occurred at Il and 22, than 44 μg/ml P. Growth enhancement was greater with Glomus fasciculatum than the mixed Glomus sps isolate (ZAC - 19).

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Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and non-GM chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. `Subicho') were grown in an isolated GMO field to evaluate horticultural characteristics. Phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar gene), which has a function of herbicide-resistance in plant, was introduced into chile pepper plants using the protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Thirty nine characteristics were evaluated, consisting of 14 qualitative, 18 quantitative and 7 other characters. The evaluations were achieved by visual assessment for qualitative characteristics and numerical measurement for quantitative ones. The GMHT and non-GM plants did not differ in the 39 characteristics tested. Pollen viability and germination rate were not significant different between the GMHT plants and the non-GM plants. These results indicated that genetic transformation of bar gene into the chile pepper did not affect those horticultural characteristics and pollen viability.

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990 Capsicum annuum varieties were assessed at the seedling stage in greenhouse for their resistance to TMV(T), CMV(C) and anthracnose(A), and their mature (purple-red) fruits were analyzed for the content of dry matter(DM), vitamin C(VC) and capsaicin(CA). The data were eventually analyzed by means of correlation and path coefficient analysis. The result was as follows: the content of DM had little positive effect but significantly (P=O.O1) negative effect on the resistance to TWV, CMV and anthracnose, i.e. Pdt=0.0066, Pdc=(-0 .1364**), Pda=(-0.1881**); whereas the content of VC or CA respectively exerted positive effect, even significantly (P=0.01) positive effect, on the resistance to TMV, CMV and anthracnose, i.e. Pvt=0.0756**, Pvc=0.0093, Pva=0.2069** and Pct=0.2003**, Pcc=0.2300**, Pca=0.0091.

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Seedlings of Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis were grown in pots containing a pasteurized mixture of sand and sandy loam soil inoculated or noninoculated with the V-A mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck et Smith. Long Ashton nutrient solution (LANS) was modified to supply P at 0, 11 or 44 μg·ml–1. Diurnal gas exchange measurements were taken 15, 30 and 50 days after the experiment was initiated. Plant growth, leaf elemental content, and mycorrhizal development were assessed 52 days after transplanting. Gas exchange and net photosynthesis were enhanced by mycorrhiza and full strength LANS fertilization (44 μg·ml–1). The symbiosis increased leaf nutrient content of P, K, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and Al. Mycorrhizal plants had higher shoot dry weights, leaf number, leaf area, and fruit primordia than nonmycorrhizal plants with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. Root colonization (arbuscules, vesicles, and internal and extraradical hyphae development) were higher with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. The quantity of spores recovered in soil was independent of P treatments.

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Micropropagated chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis) plants were transferred to ex vitro conditions to study plantlet performance and selected physiological changes that occur during acclimatization and post-acclimatization. The physiology of the plantlets was characterized by measuring leaf gas exchange and water status. Plant growth was determined by assessing plant height, leaf number, total leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), and leaf, root, and stem dry mass. Measurements were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 days after transplanting. After initial transplanting ex vitro to liner pots with soilless media, plantlet wilting was observed that correlated with reduced leaf relative water content (RWC). Water stress was partially alleviated by a reduction in stomatal conductance (gs), confirming that the in vitro formed stomata were functional and able to regulate transpiration (E) to minimize desiccation losses. Because of this stomatal control, plantlets had minimal transplant shock, recovered, and survived. Prior to transplanting, micropropagated plantlets showed heterotrophic/mixotrophic characteristics as indicated by low photosynthesis [(A) 4.74 μmol·m2·s-1]. During acclimatization, RWC, gs, E, and A were significantly lower 2 days after transplanting. However, within 6 days after transplanting, plantlets recovered and became autotrophic, attaining high A (16.3 μmol·m-2·s-1), gs, and E. The stabilization and improvement of plantlet water status and gas exchange during acclimatization and post-acclimatization closely correlated with dramatic increases in plantlet growth.

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, bell, serrano, poblano, New Mexican (all Capsicum annuum L.), habanero ( Capsicum chinense , Jacq.), and manzano ( Capsicum pubescens R. & P.) ( SIACON, 2014 ). Piquin peppers [ C. annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill] are

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