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13–15 weeks after treatment application, and diseased tissue was observed below the intact or excised cankers 15 months after treatment application. Bud Break of Grapevines in Response to Photoperiod and Chilling Many woody perennial species like

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Yushu Li, Zongda Xu, Weiru Yang, Tangren Cheng, Jia Wang and Qixiang Zhang

; Ruokolainen et al., 2011 ; Sreekantan and Thomas, 2006 ). Nevertheless, very few of these genes are functionally characterized in woody perennials. Flowering in woody perennials differs significantly from herbaceous species such as arabidopsis in having

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H.T. Kraus, S.L. Warren, G.J. Bjorkquist, A.W. Lowder, C.M. Tchir and K.N. Walton

. Mineral nutrient recommendations for woody, perennial plant production include daily applications of 50 to 100 mg·L −1 N, 10 to 20 mg·L −1 P, and 25 to 50 mg·L −1 K in a 5:1:3 N:P:K ratio ( Wright and Niemiera, 1987 ). Schnelle and White (2004

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Cecil T. Pounders and Hamidou Sakhanokho

accent plants on decks, patios, and pool areas where the plant form and rich flower colors can be appreciated. In cooler climates, plants used outdoors should be placed in warm locations sheltered from cool winds. The cultivars may also be used as woody

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Amir Rezazadeh and Eric T. Stafne

Many woody perennial species require a period of low temperatures during dormancy, referred to as “chilling.” A chilling requirement allows plants, especially those in temperate zones, to avoid damage during cold winter months. From late summer into

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Brandon M. Miller and William R. Graves

Hickories are deciduous woody perennials of the genus Carya ( Elias, 1980 ). Most are stately trees of medium to large size, exhibiting grand ornamental features that justify their use as shade trees. All are recognized for their large

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Craig E. Kallsen and Dan E. Parfitt

organization and tree health. Generally, in woody perennial plants, a smooth trunk through the graft union appears to be a desirable trait ( Beckman et al., 2008 ) and overgrowth is a concern ( Nessel and Gruppe, 1985 ; Wagner and Gruppe, 1985 ). Scion

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Carolyn F. Scagel, Richard P. Regan, Rita Hummel and Guihong Bi

, and fertilizer application timing have not been well investigated for woody perennial nursery crops. Fertilizer type also differentially influenced how trees stored and remobilized N and carbon (C) reserves from different tissues ( Scagel et al., 2010

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Bouchaib Khadari, Amal Zine El Aabidine, Cinderella Grout, Inès Ben Sadok, Agnès Doligez, Nathalie Moutier, Sylvain Santoni and Evelyne Costes

significant genetic load and time constraints ( Venkateswarlu et al., 2006 ). For this reason, an F1 population in woody perennial plants may be compared with the F2 or BC1 generation of annual self-fertilized crops ( Dondini et al., 2004 ). As a result of the

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Mark K. Ehlenfeldt, Lisa J. Rowland, Elizabeth L. Ogden and Bryan T. Vinyard

avoiding the perils of unseasonable warm spells in late winter and do this without adversely delaying the time of fruiting. Acclimation in woody perennials is perhaps less critical than deacclimation because acclimation is a steady, incremental process, and