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Joshua J. Skelton, William Sharp and Bruce E. Branham

dioxygenase of the biosynthesis pathway of plastoquinone and tocopherols ( Beaudegnies et al., 2009 ). Tocopherols are antioxidants that scavenge for damaging radicals, and plastoquinone is an electron carrier used in Photosystem II. The production of

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Mark G. Lefsrud, John C. Sorochan, Dean A. Kopsell and J. Scott McElroy

variance of α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and 55% of the variance of ascorbate (vitamin C). Therefore, it is critical to consider both genetic and environmental influences when determining plant carotenoid accumulation. Nitrogen (N) is critical in plant

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Muttalip Gündoğdu, Tuncay Kan and Mustafa Kenan Gecer

.M. 2003 Identification and quantification of carotenoids, tocopherols and chlorophylls in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables Phytochem. 62 939 947 Catignani, G.L. 1983 Simultaneous determination of retinol and a-tocopherol in serum or plasma by liquid

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Iro Kokkinou, Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios and Dimitra Varela

withstand prolonged drought by increasing the concentration of a-tocopherol, carnosic acid, and carotenoid concentration in the leaves. The production of these antioxidants prevents the oxidative damage in the plants. Salvia fruticosa. The substrate moisture

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Noriko Ohtake, Masaharu Ishikura, Hiroshi Suzuki, Wataru Yamori and Eiji Goto

integration. Data are means ± se (n = 6). Abbreviations as in Fig. 1 . Nutritional quality. The contents of protein, fat, carbohydrate, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol were similar among W24, RB24, and R12/B12. On the other hand, the contents of

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Karl Guillard and John C. Inguagiato

that SWE can enhance certain metabolic processes or compounds that promote stress tolerance in turfgrass plants, such as photochemical efficiency, α-tocopherol, superoxide dismuatase and catalase activity, CO 2 exchange rates, total carotenoids

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Ryohei Koyama, Hiromichi Itoh, Syuji Kimura, Ai Morioka and Yuichi Uno

than any other food ( Gupta and Prakash, 2008 ). Plants can synthesize some antioxidants including, for example, AsA, glutathione, α-tocopherol (vitamin E), and polyphenol to protect themselves against oxidative damage caused by environmental stressors

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James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, Matthew T. Elmore, Gregory K. Breeden and Gregory R. Armel

). Mesotrione, topramezone, and tembotrione are herbicides that affect carotenoid biosynthesis by inhibiting HPPD (EC, a precursor to plastoquinone and tocopherols ( Bollman et al., 2008 ; Grossman and Ehrhardt, 2007 ; Mitchell et al., 2001

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Ossama Kodad, José M. Alonso, María T. Espiau, Gloria Estopañán, Teresa Juan and Rafel Socias i Company

cultivars before being released ( Socias i Company et al., 2008 ). Recent studies on the transmission and heritability of oil content, fatty acid composition, and the different tocopherol homologs ( Font i Forcada et al., 2011 ) have shown that oil content

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Yong In Kuk and Ji San Shin

peroxidase (APX; EC, catalase (CAT; EC, and an ascorbate–glutathione cycle that includes glutathione reductase (GR; EC Several small antioxidant molecules, such as ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol, carotenoids, and