phytotoxicity is elicited in a growth chamber. Our hypothesis was that Civitas causes chronic phytotoxicity as a result of oil persistence and reduced g S . Materials and Methods Field assessment of phytotoxicity. This study was conducted during two field
the Theaceae family, is native only to China. Camellia oil can be extracted from C. oleifera seeds, which have been used in China for more than 1000 years ( Ruter, 2002 ). The polyunsaturated and good phenolic content of camellia oil is up to 80
Bulgaria is famous for its 330-year-old-tradition in rose oil production, which is based on the Kazanluk rose (Rosa damascena Mill. f. trigintipetala Dieck.). The Bulgarian rose oil (otto) is recognized as the ultimate rose oil. For successful selection and breeding work of oil-bearing roses, information is needed on the variation of morphological and phenological characteristics and essential oil composition of locally available genotypes. We estimated the correlation coefficients between yields and morphological characteristics of 15 genotypes of Bulgarian oil-bearing rose. It was found that rose yields depended mostly on the number of flowers, the number of flower branches per bush, and the weight of individual flowers (r = 0.99, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively). Also, we established correlations between the concentrations of various essential oil constituents of the Bulgarian rose oil. Generally, higher concentration of citronellol + nerol was associated with lower concentration of geraniol and stereo-terpens (r = –0.76 and –0.59, respectively). Also, higher concentration of citronellol + nerol was positively correlated to increased concentration of terpene aldehydes (r = 0.63) and esters (r = 0.48). The geraniol concentration was positively correlated to stearoptenes (r = 0.57). Both morphological characteristics and essential oil constituents should be used for further selection of high-yielding cultivars with desirable essential oil composition.
Morphactin in spray oil and butanol as emulsifier applied to the bark of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) trunks caused girdling effects. Treatment of ‘Thompson Seedless’ after fruit set increased berry size and treatment of ‘Perlette’ and ‘Muscat of Hamburg’ before harvest advanced maturation. A comparison between chemical and mechanical girdling showed that the former was somewhat less effective than the latter.
from several species of the Cucurbitaceae family ( Achigan-Dako et al., 2008 ; NRC, 2006 ), it is often used in reference to egusi watermelon. The plants cultivated for their oil and protein-rich seeds are currently classified as C. lanatus ssp
Our research has previously shown that soybean oil can substitute for petroleum oil for controlling insects on fruit trees. Soybean oil may also be a safe, environmentally friendly pesticide to use on nursery stock. The objectives of these experiments were to evaluate phytotoxicity of soybean oil to nursery stock and efficacy for mite control. Four replications of container-grown plants of `Alberta' spruce, `Emerald' arborvitae, `Leyland' cypress, Canadian hemlock, and `Andorra' juniper were sprayed on 26 Mar. with 0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, or 3.0% soybean oil; or 2.0% petroleum oil. None of the oil treatments caused phytotoxicity. The same plants were sprayed on 1 Aug. with 0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, or 3.0% soybean oil. Application of 1% or 2% soybean oil appeared to be non-phytotoxic to spruce, but 3% soybean oil caused slight terminal necrosis. Arborvitae, cypress, hemlock, and juniper were not injured by spraying 1% to 3% soybean oil in the summer. Container-grown burning bush plants with mite infestations were sprayed on 20 Sept. with 0%, 1.0%, 2.0%, or 3.0% soybean oil; or with 1.0% SunSpray petroleum oil. Container-grown mite-infested `Andorra' juniper plants received the same treatments, except for the 3% soybean oil. Application of 1% or 2% soybean oil to burning bush or to juniper shrubs resulted in >97% and 87% control of mites 7 and 14 days, respectively, after treatment.
difference in therapeutic constituents, such as essential oils, that are indicators of quality and efficacy. For example, a notable phenolic compound found in holy basil essential oil is eugenol. It is a versatile molecule with application in many industries
). Thus, processing the fruit pulp could be an option for extending its use and making it available for consumers. The fruit oil potential of P. schiedeana has been demonstrated in a few studies ( Cruz-Castillo et al., 2007 ; Joaquín- Martínez et al
A tank mix of fish oil plus liquid lime sulfur has proven to be an effective chemical thinner for apples in the bloom and postbloom periods. This combination was labeled for use as a chemical thinner in Washington State in 2003. There are several concerns with fish oil when used in this thinning mixture. Phytotoxicity is one concern. Apple growers have a reluctance to utilize this oil because of its expense and repulsive odor. Research to date has been conducted using oil from a single small source in Washington State. Shipping fish oil across the country is expensive and the consistency and purity of fish oil from other sources is unknown. Fish oil may function as a surfactant and penetrant, and it may also have a direct thinning effect. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the efficacy of several surfactants and oils in combination with lime sulfur for thinning apples. Lime sulfur has been less effective as a thinner when used alone than when used with oil in our studies. Regulaid, LI-700, and Silwet L-77 were shown to be less effective than oils for achieving thinning. Vegetable oil has been very effective in the thinning combination, while petroleum oils have been effective in some eastern U.S. trials, but less effective in the west. Tank mixing fish oil with lime sulfur has remained among the best treatments in our trials, while vegetable oil also shows promise.
Handgun treatments of abamectin and oil applied between mid-June and late August caused distinct epidermal rings where drops of spray liquid dried on the surface of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.). The severity of epidermal injury was related to the concentration of oil in the abamectin spray mixture (abamectin applied without oil caused no fruit damage). Of six pear cultivars tested, `Anjou' was most susceptible to injury, followed by `Cornice' and `Bartlett'. `Sensation Red Bartlett', `Bosc', and `Seckel' showed little or no phytotoxicity symptoms from abamectin and oil treatments with oil concentrations from 0.125% to 2.0% (v/v). On sensitive cultivars, the concentration of oil should not exceed 0.25% (v/v) when combined with abamectin to reduce the risk of epidermal injury. Oil at 0.25% provides for adequate leaf penetration of abamectin and results in commercially acceptable spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control. Chemical names used: avermectin B1 (abamectin).