Native wildflowers are important components of grassland communities and low-maintenance wildflower seed mixtures. Weed interference limits successful establishment of native wildflowers from seed. Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of the imidazolinone herbicides imazethapyr, imazapic, and imazaquin on the establishment of blackeyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta L.), upright prairieconeflower [Ratibida columnifera (Nutt) Woot. and Standl.], spiked liatris [Liatris spicata (L.) Willd.], blanket flower (Gaillardia aristata Pursh.), purple coneflower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.], and spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata L.). Wildflower response to the herbicide treatments was variable and appeared to be influenced by the level of weed interference. Establishment of the native wildflowers after application of imazethapyr or imazapic at 70 g·ha-1 a.i. was generally improved at sites with greater weed interference. Emergence and density of wildflowers was often reduced by imazapic in sites with low weed interference. Flower density during the second growing season was usually either improved or not reduced by either imazethapyr or imazapic. Based on these findings, imazethapyr and imazapic can reduce weed interference and improve the establishment of some native wildflowers in areas with high weed infestations. Chemical names used: (±) -2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (imazapic); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid (imazaquin); 2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-5-ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid (imazethapyr).
which irrigation water does not come in contact with leaves. A limited number of commonly grown herbaceous perennials have native distributions in saline environments and are thought to have some tolerance to salinity. For example, Leucanthemum
and variable genus ( Daniel et al., 1984 , 1990 ; Daniel and Chuang, 1993). Twenty-four species of Ruellia have been described as found in the continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, five of which are native to
The binational Southwest remains rich in native crop land races and crop wild relatives, despite numerous pressures favoring genetic erosion. Native Seeds/SEARCH is promoting in situ conservation in traditional Indian fields and nearby wild habitats, but also maintains a gene bank as a back-up, to allow future reintroductions. Seeds are distributed to Native American communities for free, and their value is reinforced through a variety of educational materials and presentations. Our regional focus allows us to serve as an effective bridge between in situ and ex situ conservationists, between Indian and international organizations, and between tribes. Methods, ethics and accomplishments to date will be highlighted.
characteristics and other beneficial traits, a large number of novel cultivars of Dendrobium have been produced through interspecific hybridization in Japan and Korea. In China, there are 74 native species and two varieties of Dendrobium classified into 12
Nineteen native blueberry (Vaccinium ashei Reade) clones selected from several areas in northern Florida and southeastern Georgia were self- and cross-pollinated in a greenhouse. Fruit set for the 19 clones averaged 15% after self-pollination and 58% after cross-pollination. Viable seeds per berry averaged four for self-pollination and 11 for cross-pollination. Average berry weight was 0.7 g for self-pollination and 1.1 g for cross-pollination, and average interval from flowering to ripening was 106 days for selfing and 92 days for crossing. Following self-pollination, pollen germinated and pollen tubes grew down the style as rapidly as after cross-pollination.
. quercifolia is relatively recent, with only a few cultivars that have known pedigrees available ( Reed, 2010 ; Reed and Alexander, 2015 ). Additionally, the native range of the species is relatively small in the southeastern United States, making it amenable
, interspecific hybridization and introgression were confirmed in more than 75% of the surveyed individuals. This study verified the value of DNA-based studies to distinguish between species of deciduous azaleas and indicated that introgression in native azaleas
). Viburnum rufidulum , one of the 12 species native to North America ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008 ), is a small deciduous tree capable of growing to a height of about 3.0 to 9.0 m ( Dirr, 2007 ). Cymes of small white flowers attract a variety of
Common hops ( Humulus lupulus ) used in brewing are typically of European genetics and cultivated between latitudes 45°N to 50°N ( Dodds, 2017 ). Lesser studied, neomexicanus hops ( H. lupulus var. neomexicanus ) are native to the western United