, 2010 ). Selection on molecular markers such as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with traits of economic value promise to increase breeding efficiency for beneficial traits, especially in long-lived tree
Morphological traits were examined in an F3 generation derived from a cross between C. lanatus var. lanatus [(Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] and C. lanatus var. citroides. At least three genes, C (yellow) vs. c (red), i (inhibitory to C) vs. I (non-inhibitory to C), and y (yellow) vs. yw (white), with epistatic and inhibitory actions were found to govern the inheritance of fruit flesh color. The high frequency of yellow-fleshed fruit and low frequencies of white and red fruits can be explained by the presence of a new allele (yw recessive to y) in the multiple allele series at the Y locus. The low frequency of tan colored seeds in segregating populations could be explained by at least three genes governing inheritance of seed-coat color. Single factor analysis of variance was conducted for each pairwise combination of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) locus and fruit or seed characteristics. Several RAPD loci were identified to be loosely linked to morphological characteristics.
Five edible mountain vegetables (Saussurea sp., Aster tataricus, A. scaber, Synurus deltoides, Ligularia fischeri) were investigated on the basis of amplified DNA polymorphisms resulted from PCR–polymerase chain reaction analysis. The sampled plants consisted of 38 individuals in five taxa. Only 10 primers out of 62 [60 random (10-mer) primers, one 15-mer-M13 core sequence, and (GGAT)4 sequence] tested gave rise to polymorphisms in all of the tested plants, producing 176 DNA fragments amplified randomly and specifically. Intraspecific polymorphisms found in each taxa showed intra-variety constancy (31.1% to 40.9%) in the banding patterns of individual plants—Saussurea sp., 31.1%, 15 bands; Aster tataricus, 40.9%, 18 bands; A. scaber, 38.5%, 15 bands; Synurus deltoides, 34.7%, 17 bands; Ligularia fischeri, 38.9%; 22 bands, respectively. All five species were well-differentiated from each other at the 0.93 level of similarity index value. Genetic relationships among intraspecific and interspecific variations were closely related at the levels ranging from 0.62 to 0.99. Based on these results, our PCR analyses support the previous data derived from external morphology of the five edible mountain vegetables, but very low levels of intraspecific variations were detected in all of these taxa.
Genetic similarities among eight Theobroma and two Herrania species, including 29 genotypes of T. cacao, were estimated by rDNA polymorphism. A phenogram based on these genetic similarities significantly separated two clusters: one cluster included all Herrania and Theobroma species, except T. cacao, while the second contained 28 of 29 T. cacao genotypes. There was no clear distinction between Herrania and Theobroma species. Separation of 29 T. cacao genotypes, representing all races and various origins, had no congruency with the conventional classification into three horticultural races: Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario. Genetic similarities in T. cacao, estimated with RAPD markers, indicated continuous variation among the generally similar but heterogeneous genotypes. The wild genotypes formed an outgroup distinct from the cultivated genotypes, a distinction supported by the rDNA data. The phenograms constructed from RAPD and rDNA data were not similar within the wild and cultivated cacao subsets.
Although always among the top five vegetables in value, little genetic information has been published on the bulb onion. Genetic and molecular analyses are hampered by the plant's biennial nature, severe inbreeding depression, and huge genome. Research is underway to construct a low-density genetic map of onion based on RFLPs, AFLPs, and RAPDs. Among open-pollinated populations (OPPs), levels on DNA polymorphisms were in agreement with those of other outcrossing diploid species. However, we identified little putative-allelic diversity among the OPPs (1.9 polymorphic bands per polymorphic probe–enzyme combination) supporting a bottleneck during the domestication of onion. Our segregating family is from the cross of two diverse inbreds and will be used to map quantitative trait loci conditioning phenotypically correlated production (maturity, storability, and firmness), consumer-preference (pungency, flavor, and bulb shape), and health-enhancing (anti-platelet aggregation) attributes of onion. We are also attempting to tag chromosome regions controlling relatively simply inherited traits that are difficult or expensive to characterize classically.
Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify RAPD markers that display tight linkage to the Vf gene in apple (Malus sp.) that confers resistance to five races of apple scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint.]. We identified several new RAPD markers linked to Vf. The most tightly linked marker in the test population, S52500, was cloned and sequenced. A linkage map of the Vf region was developed using these markers, RAPD markers previously described by other laboratories, and the isozyme locus Pgm-1. An assay was developed for Vf by multiplexing the two markers closely flanking the Vf locus. This assay has a theoretical `escape' value (discarding a resistant plant) of 3% and an error rate (selection of a susceptible plant) of 0.02%.
`Chandler' pummelo [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merrill] was found to be citrus tristeza virus (CTV)–resistant. The inheritance of this resistance in 84 progeny of two crosses derived from `Chandler' pummelo and trifoliate orange [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] was controlled by a single dominant gene designated Ctv2. Progeny analysis of four molecular markers closely linked to the Ctv gene, which confers resistance to CTV in trifoliate orange, demonstrated that Ctv2 was an independently assorting gene from Ctv.
approaches to assess variability in clonal plants have been reported, but indistinguishable morphology has been difficult to characterize. Molecular markers have the ability to detect genetic variation and provide a reliable method to ensure the integrity of
was the best for apple ( Zhang and Lespinasse, 1991 ). Molecular marker analysis showed that all the diploid plants recovered were zygotic and no spontaneous double haploid plants were obtained in this work, whereas in melon ( Lotfi et al., 2003