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Richard P. Marini

`Norman' peach trees were trained to the central-leader or open-vase form and were planted at high (740 trees/ha) or low (370 trees/ha) density. A third density treatment was a high/low density, where alternate trees in high-density plots were removed after 6 years to produce a low-density treatment. Annual yield per hectare was ≈15% to 40% greater for high-density treatments than for low-density treatments, but tree form had little influence on yield. Fruit size tended to be greater for low-density than for high-density treatments, but cumulative marketable yield was greatest for high-density and lowest for high/low density treatments. After 9 years, cumulative crop value was higher for open-vase than central-leader treatments (P = 0.12), but tree density had less of an effect on crop value (P = 0.21). Cumulative costs were highest for high-density treatments, but were not influenced by tree form. Income minus costs was nearly $4500/ha higher for open-vase than for central-leader trees and net present value was more than $2000/ha higher for high-density than low-density trees (P = 0.20). Open-vase trees were more profitable than central leader trees and should be planted at densities of about 700 trees/ha in the mid-Atlantic region.

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Kim D. Bowman, Lynn Faulkner and Mike Kesinger

‘Minneola’ trial is due to its better adaptation to those relatively high density conditions. ‘US-897’ relative performance will appear much better across all three trials, if one assumes trees on this rootstock would be planted at a higher tree density to

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Robert C. Morrow

, LED modules using very high density chip-on-board technology were developed. One such module ( Fig. 1 ), often referred to as a “light engine,” was 1 inch 2 (6.5 cm 2 ) in area and contained 132 LEDs in five colors ( Emmerich et al., 2004 ). This

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Esmaeil Fallahi

study, a well-calculated ET c -based FD irrigation method could be recommended over a sprinkler irrigation regime for modern high-density apple orchards. B.9 and RN29 were excellent rootstocks for ‘Pacific Gala’ apple in this type of production system

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Jayesh B. Samtani, Husein A. Ajwa, Rachael E. Goodhue, Oleg Daugovish, Zahanghir Kabir and Steven A. Fennimore

, in 2002–2003 ( C ) and 2003–2004 ( D ) seasons. Reference line in A–D is of the MBPic standard applied at 392 kg·ha −1 under an HDPE tarp. 1,3-D = 1,3-dichloropropene; Pic = chloropicrin; VIF = virtually impermeable film; HDPE = high-density

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Aaron Heinrich, Richard Smith and Michael Cahn

), but no studies have evaluated high-density planting of clipped or bunched spinach grown on 80-inch beds. This study was undertaken to provide data on the N uptake characteristics of spinach and evaluate ways to improve N fertilizer management. To

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Bielinski M. Santos, James P. Gilreath and Myriam N. Siham

-density polyethylene (LDPE) or high-density polyethylene (HDPE) mulches, which are extensively used in vegetable crops in Florida. Another type of film is the metallized mulch, which is covered with a reflective aluminum-based coat on the surface. This type of film is

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Ashley A. Thompson and Gregory M. Peck

The profitability of high-density apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchards depends on rapidly establishing tree biomass and then obtaining high fruit yields as soon as possible after planting. Apple growers will often apply mineral nitrogen (N

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Jaume Lordan, Terence L. Robinson, Mario Miranda Sazo, Win Cowgill, Brent L. Black, Leslie Huffman, Kristy Grigg-McGuffin, Poliana Francescatto and Steve McArtney

The adoption of high-density apple orchards during the last several decades has resulted in a significant improvement in precocity, cumulative yield, and fruit quality. However, as planting density is increased, the additional benefit in yield is

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Wesley C. Randall and Roberto G. Lopez

, LEDs could be used for SSL in high-density multilayer production systems as an effective alternative to greenhouse production systems for annual bedding plant seedling production. From the results of our study and that of Wollaeger and Runkle (2014