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include reductions in production cost, water pollution, soil erosion and degradation, and nutrient leaching ( Corak et al., 1991 ; Hall et al., 1984 ; Lonsbary et al., 2004 ). Weed management in pickling cucumber production relies on two key herbicide

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, taking an average of 6 d to reach 50% green cover. Many of the PRE herbicides used to control annual weeds in bermudagrass turf have been shown to reduce bermudagrass root growth, including prodiamine, indaziflam, and dithiopyr ( Jones et al., 2013

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desirable turfgrass species such as bermudagrass ( Cynodon spp.) or tall fescue ( Lolium arundinaceum Schreb.), the light green color and coarse texture of crabgrass foliage can reduce overall turf quality ( Hall et al., 1994 ). PRE herbicides such as

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herbicide treatments. Seedbed preparation is one of the most important actions affecting PR establishment success because of its long-term impacts on weed management ( Aldrich, 2002 ; Martin, 1986 ; Wilson, 1992 ). Previous studies indicate that weed

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among the most common herbicides used for crabgrass control in turfgrass. Preemergence (PRE) herbicides have been applied as a single application in either the spring or the fall ( Bhowmik and Bingham, 1990 ; Dernoeden, 1993 ; Engle et al., 1975

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The number of herbicides labeled for aquatic weed control is small compared with those available for terrestrial weed management. In addition, the development of herbicide resistance has been reported in aquatic weeds, which further limits the

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landscape ( Chalker-Scott, 2007 ) and nursery production ( Case et al., 2005 ). A review of earlier research focusing on the use of mulch in combination with, or in comparison with, PRE herbicides was recently published by Marble (2015) . In many cases

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Hardy ferns are widely grown for use in the landscape. Studies were conducted to evaluate the tolerance of variegated leatherleaf fern (Arachniodes simplicor `Variegata'), tassel fern (Polystichum polyblepharum), autumn fern (Dryopteris erythrosora), holly fern (Cyrtomium falcatum `Rochfordii'), and southern shield fern (Dryopteris ludoviciana), to applications of selected preemergence applied herbicides. Liquid applied herbicides were pendamethalin (LPM) at 3.36 or 6.73 kg·ha–1, prodiamine (LPD) at 1.12 or 2.24 kg·ha–1, isoxaben (LIB) at 1.12 or 2.24 kg·ha–1, and the combination of prodiamine plus isoxaben (LPI) at 1.12 plus 1.12 kg·ha–1. Granular applied herbicides were pendamethalin (GPM) at 3.36 or 6.73 kg·ha–1, prodiamine (GPD)1.12 or 2.24 kg·ha–1, oxadiazon plus prodiamine (GOP) at 1.12 + 0.22 or 2.24 + 0.44 kg·ha–1, oxyfuorfen plus oryzalin (GOO) at 2.24 + 1.12 or 4.48 + 2.24 kg·ha–1, trifluralin plus isoxaben (GTI) at 2.24 + 0.56 or 4.48 + 1.12 kg·ha–1, oxadiazon (GO) at 4.48 or 8.97 kg·ha–1, and oxadiazon plus pendamethalin (GOPD) at 2.24 + 1.4 or 4.48 + 2.8 kg·ha–1. The greatest reduction in growth of autumn fern was observed with GOPD, GO, and GOP; all three containing oxadiazon as an active ingredient. Reductions in holly fern growth were most severe when plants were treated with GTI resulting in a 42% and 54% decrease in frond length and frond number, respectively. There were also reductions in number of fronds when treated with LPM, GPM, GOP, GOO, and GOPD. There were no reductions in frond numbers on tassel fern with any herbicides tested. However, there were reductions in frond length from 6 of the 10 herbicides evaluated. The most sensitive fern to herbicides evaluated in 2004 was leatherleaf with reductions in frond length and number of fronds with 6 of the 10 herbicides tested. While all herbicides tested on southern shield fern appeared to be safe, especially in the 2004 study, tassel fern and holly fern appear to be more sensitive. GPD proved to be a safe herbicide for all species tested in both 2004 and 2005. In 2005 all plants from all treatments were considered marketable by the end of the study. However there was significant visual injury observed on the holly fern treated with LIB at 60 and 90 days after treatment which might reduce their early marketability.

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Golf course superintendents constantly battle annual bluegrass infestations in golf course putting greens, fairways, and roughs. The weapons used against annual bluegrass have included herbicides, growth regulators, management practices, and

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. Several preemergence (PRE) herbicides have been successfully evaluated for use in field-grown caladium. Gilreath et al. (1985) evaluated 12 PRE herbicides and found that oryzalin consistently provided acceptable weed control with little or no caladium

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