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Sharon Dea, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Maria Cecilia do Nascimento Nunes and Elizabeth A. Baldwin

studies have suggested that SSC, alone or in combination with flesh firmness, was the best method to establish the initial ripeness stage for processing fresh-cut mangoes ( Allong et al., 2000 ; Beaulieu and Lea, 2003 ). However, in this study, a

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Esnath T. Hamadziripi, Karen I. Theron, Magdalena Muller and Willem J. Steyn

analyses. Peel color and flesh firmness were measured for each of the five fruit, where after fruit samples were pooled for assessment of DMC. After flesh samples were taken for assessment of the DMC, peel samples and the remaining flesh samples were flash

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J.K. Brecht, K. Cordasco and W.B. Sherman

Two nonmelting flesh (`GUFprince' and `UF2000') and two melting flesh (`Tropic Beauty' and `Rayon') peach cultivars were segregated into ripeness categories at harvest according to initial flesh firmness and prepared as fresh-cut slices as described in Gorny et al. (HortScience 33:110–113), except that there were no “overripe” (0-13 N flesh firmness) stage nonmelting flesh fruit. Slices were stored at 1, 5, or 10 °C for 8 days and were evaluated for visual and taste quality, flesh firmness and color, and respiration and ethylene production rates every other day during storage. The optimal ripeness for preparing fresh-cut slices from the melting flesh cultivars was the “ripe” (13-27 N flesh firmness) stage; less-ripe melting flesh slices did not ripen at 1 or 5 °C and riper melting flesh slices and those held at 10 °C softened excessively, became discolored, and decayed. The optimal ripeness stage for the nonmelting flesh cultivars was 40-53 N flesh firmness, which corresponded to physiologically ripe (climacteric rise) for nonmelting flesh fruit, but melting flesh fruit at that firmenss were physiologically only mature-green (preclimacteric). Storage of nonmelting flesh slices was limited by surface desiccation at 1 °C, and by flesh discoloration at 5 and 10 °C, which was more severe in riper slices. The best storage temperature for both fruit genotypes was 1 °C, which prevented discoloration and decay over the 8-day storage period. Nonmelting flesh peach cultivars are better suited for fresh-cut processing than melting flesh cultivars because their firmer texture allows the use of riper fruit with better flavor than the less ripe fruit that must be used for fresh-cut melting flesh peaches.

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Ibrahim I. Tahir, Eva Johansson and Marie E. Olsson

. Ingrid Marie were heavier, thicker, and less homogenous than those in cv. Aroma. Wax with nail-like crystals, microcracks, and fungal hyphae were found on both sun-exposed ( Fig. 2A1 ) and shaded sides ( Fig. 2A2 ). Table 1. Reduction of flesh firmness of

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Guiwen Chene, Carlos Crisosto and David Garner

During the 1993 and 1994 seasons, the response of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa var. Hayward) flesh softening to exogenous ethylene applications was studied on fruit collected weekly from cold storage and directly from the vines. Fruit samples from both sources, were induced to ripen with and without ethylene preconditioning treatment (10 ppm, 24h at 0C).

During the first 3 weeks of fruit collection, flesh firmness decreased and SSC accumulation increased faster in ethylene treated kiwifruit than in the untreated. After this period, when kiwifruit had close to 9 pounds flesh firmness, ethylene treated and untreated kiwifruit softened at the same rate. Ethylene treatment did not enhance kiwifruit CO2 and ethylene production except at the first harvest time. Furthermore, ethylene treated kiwifruit did not have higher respiration and ethylene rates than untreated kiwifruit when measured at 0, 5 and 20C.

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J.M. Clements, W.P. Cowgill Jr. and J. F. Costante

An accurate and efficient system for measuring and recording fruit quality data was developed. Utilizing this procedure and custom made instrumentation. two individuals can efficiently collect, measure and record the following data: apple fruit size (weight and diameter), % red skin color, length/diameter ratio, flesh firmness, soluble solids. seed count. and starch-iodine index at a rate exceeding 60 fruit/hour. If starch iodine and seed counts are eliminated, 100 fruit/hour rates can he achieved. One individual can test 40-50 fruit/hour.

Testing equipment/materials consist of a mechanical weight scale; custom made length/diameter ratio gauge; custom made flesh firmness instrumentation; refractometer; starch-iodine solution and pie pans; and an electronic data-logger. All data is manually entered. The use of custom equipment constructed from readily available parts combined with the UVM Fruit Testing Protocol, has greatly enhanced the speed and accuracy of testing, measuring and quantifying apple fruit quality data.

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T. Wang, A. R. Gonzalez, E. E. Gbur and J. M. Aselage

Babygold 5 (BG5) and Redhaven (RDH) peaches at maturity 4 were held at 2.3°C for 0, 2 and 4 weeks. After each cold storage treatment half of the fruit sample was evaluated; the other half was ripened for 8 days at 21°C and respiration was measured daily. The evaluations on both samples were for malic, citric and quinic acids, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids (SS) and flesh firmness. Malic acid in ripened BG5 and RDH Fruits increased relative to their unripened counterpart over the cold storage time; citric acid increased in BG5, decreased in RDH; quinic acid decreased in both cultivars; TA increased; SS decreased in BG5, did not change in RDH; flesh firmness increased in BG5, did not change in RDH. Respiratory rate increased with cold storge time in both cultivars. Overall, BG5 showed more susceptibility to chilling than RDH.

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Nancy L. Schulte, Edward J. Timm and Galen K. Brown

`Redhaven' peaches [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were dropped onto several impact surfaces to determine impact conditions that initiate bruising. After impact, the peaches were tested for flesh firmness and sorted into firm, soft, and very soft groups for bruise analysis. The drop height that did not bruise decreased as fruit softened. The peach shoulder area bruised most easily. A drop of only 8 mm onto a hard surface initiated bruising on a soft peach, whereas a Poron 15250 cushion could protect the peach for a ≤85-mm drop. Impact damage threshold estimates were developed for the three flesh firmness conditions. The threshold estimates and impact history information collected by an instrumented sphere can be used to develop handling equipment design and operation guidelines that essentially avoid impact bruises on peaches.

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Duane W. Greene, Wesley R. Autio and Paul Miller

Postbloom sprays of BA thinned `McIntosh', `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Mutsu, `Empire', and `Abas' apples. BA at 75 to 100 mg·liter-1 was equal to NAA at 6 to 7.5 mg·liter-1 or carbaryl at 600 to 800 mg·liter-1. BA increased fruit size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) on all cultivars evaluated. Since BA is applied during the time when cell division is occurring, it is concluded that the increased fruit size and flesh firmness were due to Increased cell numbers. Increased SSC was not due solely to increased leaf: fruit ratio. Thinning with BA was additive with other chemical thinners and no interactions were found on fruit abscission. In most eases, BA increased return bloom. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate (carbaryl); butanedioic acid mono(2,2dimethylhydrazide (daminozide); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).

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M.D. White, D.S. Tustin, K.F. Foote, R.K. Volz, J. Stokes, J. Campbell, R. Marshall and C. Howard

ReTain™ is a plant bioregulator containing the active ingredient aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), which inhibits the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. In 1997, the first efficacy studies on `Royal Gala' apple with ReTain™ were conducted under New Zealand conditions in Hawkes Bay. ReTain™ was applied 4 weeks before the anticipated start of harvest on `Royal Gala' at 850 and 1700 g·ha–1 with or without adjuvants. ReTain™ application delayed the onset of `Royal Gala' fruit maturation between 1 and 2 weeks, resulting in enhanced fruit size and fruit flesh firmness at harvest. The optimum response for delaying the onset of fruit maturation was achieved using ReTain™ at 850 g·ha–1 if applied in combination with a wetter. Fruit were also graded for fruit quality and air-stored at 0.5 °C. Fruit after 10 weeks of storage showed no difference in fruit flesh firmness, but all ReTain™ treatments had fruit with less yellow background colour compared with untreated fruit. In 1998, efficacy studies were undertaken in three geographical locations on `Royal Gala'. ReTain™ was applied at a rate of 830 g·ha–1 in combination with Silwet L-77 at 0.1%. All trees with the exception of `Royal Gala' grown in the Hawkes Bay had not received any ReTain™ previously. In all regions, seasonal changes in background color and starch pattern index were delayed by ReTain™ treatment. A concurrent delay of an increase in soluble solids concentration and retention of higher flesh firmness were also induced by ReTain™ treatment.