We examined the effectiveness of an elevated capillary mat system to maintain constant and different moisture levels in the growing medium and verify the potential of drought stress conditioning in producing small and compact bedding plants. To differentiate between plant height and compactness, we determined compactness as the leaf area or dry mass per unit stem length. Marigold `Queen Sophia' (Tagetes erecta L.) seedlings were grown in square, 9-cm-wide, 10-cm-high containers filled with a soilless growing medium. A capillary mat was laid on top of a greenhouse bench which was raised by 15 cm on one side compared to the other side to create an elevation effect. Seedlings were subirrigated by immersing the low end of the capillary mat in a reservoir of water. The amount of water moving to the higher end of the mat progressively decreased with elevation. The moisture content in the growing medium averaged from 26 to 294 mL/pot at different elevations. Regression analysis indicated that growth parameters including, shoot dry mass, leaf area, leaf number, and plant height decreased linearly with decreasing soil moisture content in the growing medium. Of all the measured growth parameters, plant height was found to be least sensitive to decreasing moisture content in the growing medium. Plants in high moisture treatments had more dry mass and leaf area per unit length of the stem compared to those in low moisture treatments. Our results indicate that drought stress can produce small, but not truly compact bedding plants.
Marc W. van Iersel and Krishna S. Nemali
Salvador Berumen and Norman K. Lownds
Landscapes in the desert Southwest must be water efficient and utilize drought tolerant plants. Therefore, plants with landscape potential must be evaluated for their level of drought tolerance and drought tolerance mechanisms. Drought tolerance, for some plant species, may be related to the plants ability to produce ethylene as a mechanism for defoliation, thus reducing water use. Cassia corymbosa has potential as a woody shrub for southwestern landscapes because of its dark green foliage and bright yellow flowers. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of leaf dehydration and drought stress on ethylene production in Cassia. Leaf dehydration was examined by excising leaves and placing them at 20, 25, or 30 °C. The time course of ethylene production depended on the temperature (rate of dehydration), but the peak occurred at 18% to 25% fresh weight loss, regardless of dehydration temperature. The effect of irrigation rate was determined by supplying plants with 0%, 40%, 60% and 100% of the daily water consumption (WC) based on pot capacity. Ethylene production depended on irrigation rate. Plants irrigated at 100% of daily WC were not stressed and did not produce ethylene. Irrigation at 60% of daily WC induced peak ethylene production 72 hours after treatment with decreased production as at longer times. Irrigation at 40% or 0% of the daily WC did not induce ethylene production because of the rapid dehydration. Drought-induced ethylene production in Cassia corymbosa appears to be closely related to the rate of dehydration and may provide a drought tolerance mechanism.
Thomas E. Marler and Louann C. Guzman
Intsia bijuga is an important native tree on Guam, and is being promoted as an urban forestry tree. Container-grown I. bijuga trees were subjected to a drying cycle (50% of mean water loss replaced daily) to determine physiological responses to drought. Early to mid-morning gas exchange began to decline compared to well-watered plants on day 12, and quickly declined thereafter. Net CO2 assimilation (A) was close to zero by day 29 and became negative by day 36. Chlorophyll fluorescence of drought-stressed trees was not different from that of well-watered trees on numerous days of measurement throughout the drying cycle. Unlike leaflets of well-watered trees, leaflets of the stressed trees exhibited heliotropic movement to avoid direct exposure to the sun. The stressed trees did not respond with any change in osmotic potential of leaflets following rehydration. Carbon dioxide-use efficiency of stressed trees was reduced to 66% of well-watered trees. The most profound response following rewatering (day 37) was leaf shedding. All trees shed some leaves, and 33% of the trees shed the entire canopy. On the trees that retained some leaves, A returned to that of the control trees by day 13 of recovery.
Jin Wook Lee, Kenneth W. Mudge and Joseph Lardner
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) contains pharmacologically active secondary compounds known as ginsenosides, which have been shown to be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. In this greenhouse experiment, we tested the hypothesis that ginsenosides would behave as “stress metabolites” and be associated with osmoregulation in response to drought stress. Two year-old seedlings, grown in 5-inch pots, were well watered for 40 days prior to the initiation of treatments. Plants in the drought stress treatment were watered every 20 days while the controls were watered every 10 days, and the experiment was terminated after 4 and 8 dry down cycles (80 days), respectively. Predawn leaf water potential and relative water content (RWC) of drought-stressed plants during a typical dry down cycle were lower than control plants. The diameter and weight of primary storage roots were decreased in the stressed treatment. The length of the main storage root and the longest secondary (fibrous) root were significantly increased by the drought stress treatment. Leaf chlorophyll content of drought-stressed plants was lower than controls. The osmotic potential of the drought-stressed ginseng was not lower than the control, indicating that ginsenoside is not involved in osmoregulation in response to drought stress. Furthermore, ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd, and total ginsenosides were significantly lower in primary roots of drought-stressed plants compared to control plants.
Hiroshi Yakushiji, Kunihisa Morinaga and Hiroshi Nonami
Mechanisms of sugar accumulation in response to drought stress in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit were investigated. Predawn leaf water potentials averaged -0.35MPa for well-watered, -0.60 MPa for moderately drought-stressed, and -1.00 MPa for severely drought-stressed glasshouse-grown 3-year-old trees. Fruit peel turgor and fruit growth of the moderately drought-stressed trees recovered to a similar value to that of the well-watered trees. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of both moderately and severely drought-stressed trees were significantly lower than those of the well-watered plants. However, the total sugar content per fruit of moderately drought-stressed trees was the highest among the drought treatments. A 13C-labeling experiment showed that 13C distribution in fruit grown under the moderately drought-stressed condition was the highest. These findings indicate that sugar accumulation in fruit was caused by an increase in translocation of photosynthates into fruit, especially into the juice sacs, under drought stress.
Jonathan N. Egilia, Fred T. Davies Jr and Sharon Duray
Hibiscus plants, were irrigated with full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution containing either 0,2,5, or 10 mM potasium(K). After 72 days of K treatment, half of the plants at each K level were subjected to a 21-day slowly developing drought stress cycle and the other half were non-drought stressed (ND). Mid-day leaf water potentials at day 21 was-1.5 to-1.6 MPa (DS), and -0.5 MPa (ND). Leaf K concentration increased with increasing K in nutrient solution for both DS and ND plants, but K was higher in DS than ND plants at 2.5 and 10 mM K. Of the macronutrient cations, only (Ca) was inversely correlated with nutrient solution K, in both DS and ND plants. Leaf concentrations of all the micronutrient cations increased with increasing K supply, regardless of drought stress. Potassium hadt significant positive correlation with total plant and leaf dry weight of DS, but not ND plants. Leaf stable carbon isotope composition (δ13 C,an estimate of long term water-use efficiency), was positively correlated with N, Mg and Ca, and negatively correlated with K, iron (Fe), and K:total cation ratio regardless of drought stress. Both net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance were negatively correlated with N and Ca, but positively correlated with K, Fe and manganese in ND plants.
Maren E. Veatch-Blohm and Dennis T. Ray
As a native of the Chihuahuan desert, guayule (Partheniumargentatum Gray) has a history of dealing with low water availability. Agronomic studies have shown that increasing irrigation increases overall rubber yields, but decreases rubber concentration per plant. As water availability is an important factor in agricultural production, this study was conducted to examine how drought affects plant growth and secondary compound distribution throughout the plant. One-year-old guayule plants were subjected to water stress from June through August, in 2003 and 2004. The well-watered treatment was irrigated daily, and the drought-stressed plants were irrigated when the soil water potential reached 6 (0.6) or 3 (0.3) bars (megapascals) in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Plant growth was monitored by measuring height, width, and stem diameter. Fresh weight of shoots and roots was recorded at harvest, and a subset of plants were defoliated and used to determine leaf weight and area. Resin and rubber were extracted from dried and ground plant samples. Growth, leaf weight, and leaf to stem ratio were decreased in the drought-stressed plants compared to the well-watered plants. Rubber concentration, but not resin concentration, was higher in the drought-stressed plants. There were no significant differences in resin and rubber concentration in the leaves and roots of the different treatments; however, they were both higher in the stems of the drought-stressed plants. In guayule, rubber is deposited mainly in the bark parenchyma of the stems. The drought-stressed plants had a greater contribution of stem biomass to overall biomass and a reduced stem diameter with higher bark to wood ratio, which could account for the higher rubber concentration in the drought-stressed plants.
Mohamed A. Shaheen and Samir Z. El-Agamy
Floral biology of `Taifi' pomegranate was studied on trees grown in extreme high temperature and drought conditions. Measurement included flowering date, duration and type, pollen viability, diameter, intitial and horticultural fruit set percentage, and fruit drop percentage and fluctuation. Heat and drought stresses were found to greatly influence some floral characteristics in addition to fruit set and productivity of `Taifi' pomegranate.
Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang
Osmotic adjustment (OA) is a major physiological mechanism associated with maintenance of cell turgor in response to dehydration stress. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in capacity for OA in relation to plant tolerance to drought stress for two cool-season turfgrass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.), and to determine major solutes contributing to OA in these grass species. Plants of `L-93' creeping bentgrass and `Greenwich' velvet bentgrass were grown in a growth chamber in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes (5 cm diameter, 40 cm high) filled with a 1:3 (v/v) sterilized mixture of sand and sandy loam soil. The experiment consisted of two soil moisture treatments: 1) well-watered control, irrigated three times per week to maintain soil moisture near pot capacity; and 2) drought stress, irrigation completely withheld. Velvet bentgrass exhibited higher drought tolerance compared to creeping bentgrass, as manifested by higher visual turfgrass quality (TQ) and leaf relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Both creeping bentgrass and velvet bentgrass exhibited OA in response to drought stress; however, velvet bentgrass exhibited 50% to 60% higher magnitude of OA, which could be related to the maintenance of higher leaf RWC and TQ for greater drought duration compared to creeping bentgrass. OA for both creeping bentgrass and velvet bentgrass was associated with accumulation of water soluble carbohydrates during the early period of drought and increases in proline content following prolonged period of drought; however, inorganic ion content (Ca2+ and K+) did not considerably change under drought stress and did not seem to contribute to OA in these species.
Daniel I. Leskovar and Daniel J. Cantliffe
ABA and drought stress were evaluated on growth morphology and dry weight of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seedlings subjected to continuous watering (CV) or alternate watering (AW) subflotation irrigation. When ABA (10-4 m) was sprayed on to leaves 28, 32, or 37 days after seeding (DAS), leaf growth was limited relative to the controls. Root dry weight, basal root count, and diameter decreased in AW compared with CW-treated seedlings. ABA did not influence root growth of the transplants or subsequent total fruit yield. When ABA was applied to leaves at 20,23, or 29 DAS, there was a transient inhibition of leaf weight increase, but root growth was unaffected. Exogenous ABA may have a practical application as a substitute for drought stress to control transplant growth in the nursery. Chemical name used: abscisic acid (ABA).