suggesting protocols for field tests, and of Robert Busch, USDA/ARS, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Univ. of Minnesota, for counseling in data analysis. This work was funded in part by the Midwest Food Processors Association and the Blandin Foundation
Mary S. Joyce and David W. Davis
Michael J. Willett, Preston K. Andrews and Edward L. Proebsting
Evans of the Washington State Univ. program in statistics for advice on data analysis. Partial funding was provided by the Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission.
Margrethe Serek and Arne Skytt Andersen
We thank Henrik Saaby Johansen for radioactivity-measurement assistance, Michael S. Reid for critical review, Peggy Hale and Carol Adams for data analysis advice, and Ove Nielsen for the rose plants. The experiments were supported by a grant
Kenneth R. Summy and Christopher R. Little
Fungi are major biotic constraints for optimum production and quality of glasshouse plants. When plants are infested with sooty mold (Capnodium spp.) or infected with pathogens, the reflected wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are altered. Spectroradiometric measurements and color infrared (CIR) images of control, honeydew-coated, and sooty mold-infested saplings and individual leaves from trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), sour orange (Citrus aurantium), ‘Valencia’ orange (C. sinensis), and ‘Bo’ tree (Ficus religiosa) were obtained. Grapefruit saplings and individual leaves infected with Mycosphaerella citri (greasy spot) were imaged under glasshouse conditions. Similarly, muskmelon foliage showing low and high levels of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) disease severity were analyzed. When examining individual leaves, all fungal biotic stressors generally resulted in variable spectral reflectance data, especially in the blue (450 nm) and green (550 nm) wavelengths; however, values in the red (650 nm) tended to increase and values in the near-IR (850 nm) tended to decrease with stress. Near-IR/red image ratios were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in stressed whole plant foliage and individual leaves relative to healthy controls. The accumulation of insect honeydew (which occurs before sooty mold infestation) significantly increased (P < 0.05) near-IR reflectance values and near-IR/red ratios in ‘Valencia’ orange and near-IR/ratios in ‘Bo’ tree foliage and individual leaves. Image acquisition and enhancement techniques may prove useful in large-scale production greenhouses where existing infrastructure and high plant populations require high throughput data analysis and identification of biotic stressors.
N.E. Roe, S.R. Kostewicz and H.H. Bryan
Several companies and government agencies are now making municipal solid waste (MSW) composts. This study was undertaken to test effects of a MSW compost with different rates of fertilizer on broccoli. Treatments were compost at 0, 6.7, 13.5 and 26.9 MT/ha and fertilizer at 84 and 168 kg/ha N on a, fine sand soil. Treatments were applied, rototilled, and beds formed and covered with black plastic. Broccoli cv. `Southern Comet' transplants were set on March 2 with 46 cm between plants, 2 rows/bed, and beds centered at 1.8 m. Mature heads 15 cm and larger were harvested on April 25. Numbers of heads and total weight of heads were recorded and average head weights were calculated. Data analysis indicated main effect significance for fertilizer rate but not for compost rate with no interactions. The 168 kg/ha level of N resulted in a yield of 5795 kg/ha while the 84 kg/ha level produced 3849 kg/ha. Average head weights were 264, 262, 257, and 252 g; and marketable yield were 5.0, 4.8, 5.0, and 4.5 MT/ha; at 0, 6.7, 13.5, and 26.9 MT/ha, respectively.
John R. Clark, Kelly M. Irvin and Richard Maples
Nitrogen rates (using urea) of 22, 67 and 135 kg/ha were applied to mature mulched and unmulched highbush blueberries over a 5 year period. Soil samples were taken each year at budbreak (prior to fertilization) and post-harvest at the suggested time of foliar sampling (approx. Aug.1) to determine N rate effects within and among years. Data analysis revealed that the most common soil test variables affected by N rate and date of sampling were pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and nitrate. For unmulched plants, a significant reduction in soil pH was found each year between budbreak and Aug. 1 for the 67 and 135 kg/ha rates, but not usually for the 22 kg/ha rate. For mulched plants, pH reduction within N rate among sample dates was usually not significant. Overall soil pH reduction was greatest for the 135 kg/ha rate over the 5 years, and the pH reduction for the 67 kg/ha rate was similar to the 135 kg/ha rate for the unmulched plants. For mulched plants, 22 and 67 kg/ha rates had a similar trend of only a slight pH reduction over the 5 years. EC and nitrate trends were very similar, with the highest levels of each on the unmulched plants.
Soon O. Park, Dermot P. Coyne, Geunhwa Jung, Paul W. Skroch, E. Arnaud-Santana and James R. Steadman
Our objective was to identify QTL for seed weight (SW), length, and height segregating in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from the cross `PC-50' (Larger SW) × XAN-159 (Smaller SW). The parents and RILs were grown in two separate greenhouse experiments in Nebraska, and in field plots in the Dominican Republic and Wisconsin. Data analysis was done for individual environments separately and on the mean over all environments. A simple linear regression analysis of all data indicated that most QTL appeared to be detected in the mean environment. Composite interval mapping (CIM) analysis was then applied to the means over environments. Eight QTL for SW were detected on common bean linkage groups (LGs) 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. All eight markers associated with these QTL were significant in a multiple regression analysis (MRA), where the full model explained 63% of the variation among SW means. Six QTL for seed length were detected on LGs 2, 3, 4, 8, and 11 using CIM. The markers associated with the three seed length QTL on LGs 2, 8, and 11 were significant in a MRA with the full model explaining 48% of the variation among seed length means. Three QTL for seed height on LGs 4, 6, and 11 explained 36% of the phenotypic variation for trait means. Four of the six QTL for seed length and two of three QTL for seed height also appeared to correspond to QTL for SW.
Luz Reyes*, Sylvia M. Blankenship*, Jonathan R. Schultheis* and Michael D. Boyette
Sweetpotato roots, especially the cultivar Beauregard, tend to experience epidermal loss during harvest and postharvest handling which results in a less attractive product in the market. A survey study was conducted among North Carolina (N.C.) sweetpotato growers in Fall 2001 and 2002. The purpose of the survey was to gather information and try to correlate cultural practices, growing conditions and site characteristics with the occurrence of attractive roots and to define new scientific approaches to reducing epidermal loss. Samples were obtained from 42 N.C. farms. Survey field information and laboratory results were correlated to identify possible factors affecting the appearance of the roots. 1300 roots were used to measure skin adhesion, peeling susceptibility, skin moisture, skin anthocyanin and lignin content. From survey questions, 50 characteristics were defined for each sample, according to field characteristics, cultivar information, cultural practices and harvest and postharvest practices. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the relationship between the skin characteristics analyzed at the laboratory, and the survey descriptors information. Analysis of variance was used for laboratory data analysis. Person correlations were made between survey variables and laboratory characteristics. Several possible relationships between root appearance and other characteristics/practices were identified. Root skin adhesion may improve in later generations from elite propagation material. Early application of phosphate and potash fertilizers were correlated to improved root skin adhesion. There appeared to be a relationship between soil moisture at harvest time, increased lignin content in the skin and peeling susceptibility. Future areas of study were identified.
James E. Klett, David Hillock and David Staats
Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. During the 1995 season six preemergent herbicides [(in kg·ha–1) Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 4.5 and 9.1; Isoxaben (Gallery 75DF), 1.1 and 2.3; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 4.5 and 9.1; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 3.4 and 13.6; Oryzalin (Surflan AS), 2.8 and 4.5; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G) 4.5 and 9.1, were tested on Callirhoe involucrata, Delosperma nubigenum, Dendranthemum ×morifolium `Jennifer', Festuca cinerea `Sea Urchin', and Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink'. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and sometimes death to Dendranthemum. Oxadiazon (9.1 kg·ha–1) and Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (both rates) resulted in plant chlorosis and necrosis to Delosperma soon after herbicide application, but plants outgrew herbicide damage. Napropamide (both rates), applied to Delosperma, resulted in less dry weight when compared to some of the other herbicide treatments. Oryzalin (4.5 kg·ha–1) resulted in visual phytotoxicity and less plant dry weight to Festuca. Data analysis revealed no significant differences in Callirhoe and Gypsophila. In general, most herbicides controlled weeds effectively.
Blaine R. Hanson, Jan Hopmans and Jirka Simunek
Injection during the middle one-third or the middle one-half of the irrigation is recommended for fertigation using microirrigation. However, short fertigation events are commonly used by growers. This project investigated the effect of fertigation practices on nitrate availability and leaching. The first phase of the project (completed) determined nitrate distributions in the root zone for four microirrigation systems, three soil types, and five fertigation strategies using the HYDRUS-2D computer simulation model. Fertigation strategies included injecting for short time periods at the beginning, middle, and end of the irrigation cycle, respectively; injecting during the middle 50% of the irrigation cycle, and continuous injection. The second phase (ongoing) is investigating the distribution of nitrate, ammonium, urea, phosphate, and potassium around the drip line for selected Phase 1 scenarios. Phase 1 results showed less nitrate leached from the root zone for a 2-h injection time at the end of a long irrigation event compared to injection at the beginning and middle of a long irrigation event for surface drip irrigation. A more continuous fertigation resulted in a more uniform distribution of nitrate in the soil. The results were less conclusive for subsurface drip lines, due to upward movement of nitrate above the drip line. Little difference in nitrate leaching occurred for short irrigation events, regardless of fertigation strategy. Data analysis of the Phase 2 modeling is under way. The HYDRUS-2D model included partition coefficients for ammonium, phosphate, and potassium, and parameters for hydrolysis (conversion of urea to ammonium), nitrification, and denitrification.