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Rain-induced cracking is an important limitation in sweet cherry production worldwide ( Christensen, 1996 ). Cracking susceptibility differs among cultivars. Cracking is thought to be related to water uptake into the fruit, but the mechanistic basis

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information indicate that the first commercial plantings in Ecuador started the early 1600s ( Bartley, 2005 ). Until the beginning of the 20th century, Nacional genetic group cultivars were the only type cultivated in Ecuador ( Soria, 1966 ), resulting in a

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Thorny erect blackberries (Rubus spp.) were evaluated for yield and cane vigor as affected by galls produced by the rednecked cane borer Agrilus ruficollis (F.). Galling in `Cherokee' significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the count of berries and the weight of berries per centimeter of live cane. Winter injury, water stress, and nutritional stress induced by galls increased the amount of dead wood per cane. Galling did not affect the length of live laterals per `Cherokee' cane. For `Comanche' and `Cheyenne', the amount of dead wood per cane increased as gall counts increased. In contrast, the length of live laterals per cane increased for `Comanche' and decreased for `Cheyenne' as gall counts increased. The weight of berries and the count of berries per centimeter of live cane for `Comanche' and `Cheyenne' were not related to the count of galls. Of the four cultivars, `Shawnee' produced the most berries and greatest weight of berries per centimeter of live cane when canes were free of galls. Conversely, when galls exceeded two per cane, `Shawnee' yielded least, followed by `Comanche', `Cheyenne', and `Cherokee'.

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Persimmon ( Diospyros kaki ) is a popular fruit in China due to its flavor and nutritional value with various cultivars. China is the leading region for persimmon agriculture, with 91.15% of the cultivation area and 73.46% of the production volume

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drought stress in perennial ryegrass. Variations in antioxidant enzyme activities have been associated with differences in drought tolerance of grass cultivars ( Man et al., 2011 ). Although excessive accumulation of ROS results in cellular damage and

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Abstract

Oxyfluorfen exhibited intraspecific selectivity among cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var capitata) cultivars. The wettable powder (WP) and granular (G) formulations were less toxic to cabbage plants than the emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulation when applied at 0.56 kg ai/ha. Susceptibility to oxyfluorfen injury decreased with plant age. Plants treated with 0.56 kg ai/ha of the WP formulation at the 2-leaf growth stage showed greater injury than plants treated at the 6–8 leaf stage. Oxyfluorfen injury symptoms from an application of 0.28 kg ai/ha EC formulation were increased when plants were treated previously with 1.12 kg ai/ha EPTC. Selectivity may be provided by cuticular wax on the cabbage leaves which prevents spray retention and penetration. Cultivars with increased cuticular wax showed reduced injury from oxyfluorfen application.

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is maintained during the winter, and dormancy must be released after spring freeze-thaw cycles. In Ontario, Canada, sub-zero air and soil temperatures can occur for extended periods, consequently, cultivars must be winter hardy. Local trials of

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salt-tolerant cultivars via the use of these hormones as biomarkers or potential biochemical pathways to genetically alter for improved salt tolerance. Hormonal changes in response to salt stress have been documented in other species such as wheat

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The genus Vitis has two subgenera, Vitis (bunch grapes) and Muscadinia (muscadine grapes) ( Planchon 1887 ). Muscadinia consists of just two species, Vitis rotundifolia , which was domesticated to produce muscadine grape cultivars, and

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, Victoria), where Asian hybrid cultivars are grown as a niche product for consumption chiefly by ethnic communities from Asia ( Morgan and Midmore, 2002 ). Bitter gourd fruit is a good dietary source of beta-carotene, vitamin C, folic acid, magnesium

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