When temperatures reach -26 °C and lower, even for brief periods of time, damage to fruit buds and woody tissue of the peach tree is common. Low temperature injury on peach can lead to bark damage, gummosis, increased incidence of perennial canker, partial or complete crop losses, reduced shoot growth and/or tree death. In Jan. 1994 the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia and surrounding states experienced three successive nights of temperatures at -28 °C or lower. Beginning in Apr. 1994, 7-year-old `Blake'/Lovell peach trees were subjected to four pruning levels (none, light, heavy, and dehorned) each at three times (April, May, and June) in a replicated factorial arrangement. Specific pruning treatments were applied only in 1994; a local commercially recommended level and time of pruning were applied to all trees from 1995 through 1998. Treatments had a significant effect on canopy volume and fruit yields. Trees receiving no pruning or dehorned trees and trees pruned in June had lower yields in 1995 than trees pruned in April or May or trees receiving a light or heavy pruning. These treatments also produced fewer large fruit at harvest. Lower yields and smaller fruit led to reduced dollar returns per hectare in 1995. Yields from 1996 through 1998 were lower for trees that were dehorned pruned in 1994 although there were little or no differences in fruit sizes between treatments. Time and/or level of pruning had effects on the number of cankers and number of large (>5.1 cm) cankers.
Stephen S. Miller and Ross E. Byers
Stephen S. Miller and Ross E. Byers
Seven-year-old `Blake'/`Lovell' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees were subjected to four pruning levels (none, light, heavy, and dehorned) each at three times (April, May, and June) in a factorial arrangement following freezing injury in January 1994. Pruning had a significant effect on canopy height, canopy volume and fruit yields. Peach trees pruned in April or dehorned (severe pruning) had less canopy volume in the first fruiting season (1995) after the pruning treatments were initiated than trees pruned in May or June and light or heavy pruned trees. In 1995, yields were lower for trees pruned in June, nonpruned or dehorned trees in 1994. These treatments also produced fewer large fruit at harvest and thus reduced dollar returns per hectare in 1995. In 1996, fruit numbers and fruit sizes did not differ among treatments, but dehorned trees had lower returns per hectare because trees were smaller. The results of this study indicate that peach trees subjected to moderate winter injury should be pruned no later than 2 to 3 weeks after bloom using a heavy level of pruning. There appears to be no economic advantage to dehorn pruning even though canopy volume can be reduced resulting in a smallertree with high quality wood. The results clearly illustrate the long-term negative effect of dehorn pruning on yields resulting from reduced canopy volume. Mean number of cankers per tree increased over time from 1995 through 1998, but pruning treatments did not affect the number of cankers produced. Pruning treatments did affect the size of cankers and the number with visible gumming.
Mark T. Windham and Robert N. Trigiano
Ten cultivars of Cornus florida (Barton, Cherokee Princess, Cloud 9, First Lady, Fragrant Cloud, Plena, Purple Glory, Rubra, Springtime, and Welch's Jr. Miss) were evaluated for horticultural characters of canker incidence, susceptibility to spot anthracnose and freeze damage, bloom number, bract length, and phenology. Of the ten cultivars, only `Barton' and `Cloud 9' were similar for all characteristics studied. DNA amplification fingerprinting (12 standard primers) and Arbitrary Signatures from Amplification Profiles (four minihairpin primers) were used to test our hypothesis that `Barton' and `Cloud 9' were genetically distinct, but phenotypically similar. Polymorphisms were not observed; therefore, we could not reject the null hypothesis that `Barton' and `Cloud 9' are the same genotype.
J. D. Norton, G. E. Boyhan and B. R. Abrahams
Plum production in the Southeastern United States is limited because cultivars are susceptible to bacterial canker (Pseudomonas syringae), bacterial fruit and leaf spot (Xanthomonas pruni), black knot (Apisporina morbosa) and plum leaf scald (Xylella fastidiosa). Evaluation of four new cultivars developed by the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station indicated that AU-Rubrum, AU-Rosa and AU -Cherry were resistant to all the diseases listed, and AU-Amber was resistant to all excapt A. morbosa. Disease ratings were made on trees in six experimental plantings in Alabama, in Georgia test plantings and in grower trials.
A planting of 48 trees of `Redhaven' scion on Lovell, Nemaguard, and Wildpeach rootstocks (RS) was established in 1990, with four replications in randomized complete-block design. Cultural practices common in Georgia were used to maintain the planting. Orchard performance for peach tree short life (PTSL) related tree survival, RS suckering, fungal gummosis, and tree stresses from cold injury and Pseudomonas canker, was investigated to examine RS potential of Wildpeach compared with Lovell and Nemaguard. Trees on all RS showed 100% survival for the first 5 years in the orchard. Although canker became more prevalent in later years, trees had significantly higher ratings on Nemaguard (2.88) and Lovell (2.50) RS than on Wildpeach (1.44). However, PTSL stress enraged by Pseudomonas killed one tree each on Lovell and Wildpeach RS during 1995. Trunk cambial browning that estimated cold injury was trivial due to mild winters; however, trees on Nemaguard had higher TCB ratings (1.25) than on other RS. Trees on Wildpeach had fewer suckers than on Nemaguard or Lovell. Gummosis ratings were higher on Nemaguard RS than on Lovell and Wildpeach. The results showed that Wildpeach has good potential for a peach RS.
L.S. Chang, A.F. Iezzoni, G.C. Adams and F.W. Ewers
Eight open-pollinated peach families [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were selected from a germplasm collection that was screened for tolerance to Leucostoma persoonii (Nits.) Höhn. [imperfect state, .Leucocytospora leucostoma (Pers.) Höhn] following field inoculation. The eight peach families were either susceptible or tolerant to L. persoonii infection based on canker length measurements. Three open-pollinated seedlings per family were chosen for evaluation. Following artificial inoculation, measurements of hydraulic conductance per pressure gradient (Kh) were made on 2-year-old branch segments from the 24 seedlings, and safranin dye was used to mark the conductive xylem pathways. For the peach families tolerant to L. persoonii, the specific Kh of the canker branch segments was greater than that for the most susceptible peach families. The inoculated branch segments from the tolerant peach families maintained ≈15% to 30% of the water transport of control segments. Safranin dye movement indicated that the sapwood in inoculated branch segments of seedlings from the susceptible peach families was almost completely blocked. Isolation experiments indicated deeper penetration of the fungus into the xylem of seedlings of susceptible than tolerant families. Xylem dysfunction appears to be correlated with a reduction in Kh, and the seedlings in the tolerant peach families are better able to maintain water transport through the stem segment invaded by the fungus.
S.D. Rooks, J.R. Ballington and C.M. Mainland
1 Research Associate. 2 Professor. We express our appreciation to R.D. Milholland and William Cline for screening for stem canker and stem blight resistance and to Terry Bland, Joseph Febrowitz, and Margorzata Matuszewski for technical
R.S. Hunt and G.D. Jensen
For the white pine blister rust disease (WPBR), reports conflict concerning the time of year the pathogen, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch., infects western white pine (Pinus monticola D. Don) and what needle age increments are most susceptible. To determine timing of infection, western white pine seedling were placed under infected currants (Ribes nigrum L.) for 1-week periods from May to November. Needles became spotted and stems cankered after exposure to diseased currants from early summer until leaf drop in November. To determine what foliage age increment was most susceptible, 5-year-old seedlings were placed in a disease garden, and older trees were inoculated in situ. All age increments of pine foliage were susceptible to infection. For young seedlings, all age increments were about equally susceptible, but on some older seedlings and trees, the current year's foliage appeared more resistant than older foliage.
M.E. Ostry and P.M. Pijut
Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) has many fine qualities as a nut species, however, it has never been commercially important. Although the nut is very edible, only a few cultivars have been selected that have desirable nut size and cracking qualities. In the last 20 years there has been a dramatic decline in the number of butternut in native stands caused to a large extent by the lack of natural reproduction and a damaging canker disease. Evidence suggests that superior, disease resistant trees can be propagated and if isolated from areas where the disease is prevalent, may remain disease-free. It is important that the remaining genetic diversity within the species is maintained. Various butternut conservation practices and research projects to restore butternut populations are underway in the United States and Canada.
Gregory L. Reighard, Danielle Ellis and Charles Graham
'Redhaven' and 'Springcrest' peach cultivars were budded to 12 rootstock selections and planted on a non-fumigated peach tree short life site. After 2 growing seasons, 2 shoots/tree (20 trees/stion) were collected in late November 1990 and again in early March 1991. Samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and later freeze dried and prepared for analysis. Total soluble sugars and starch were extracted from the shoot and quantified. No significant differences among rootstocks or cultivars were found for total soluble sugars and starch. No significant correlations were found between stion carbohydrates in fall and spring and the incidence of bacterial canker in April 1991. Total soluble sugars and starch averaged 110 and 120 mg/g dry tissue for fall and spring sample times, respectively. Cultivars on the hybrid plum rootstock 'Edible Sloe' had the highest soluble carbohydrates in both fall and spring.