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Yan-xin Duan, Ying Xu, Ran Wang and Chun-hui Ma

cultivation area increasing, a physiological disorder that appears to be cork spot in this cultivar has occurred in several pear orchards in Shandong province of China, and become a serious problem over the years. Cork spot, bitter pit, and corky core, the

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C.B. Watkins and F.W. Liu

susceptibility to CI. Of these factors, most attention in the literature has been given to mineral concentrations, especially bitter pit and senescent breakdown ( Bramlage, 1993 ; Ferguson and Watkins, 1989 ; Ferguson et al., 1993 ). Correlation analyses

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Georgios Syrgianidis and Nikolaos Koutinas

storability during cold storage ( Thiault, 1971 ). Some years fruits showed the physiological disorder “bitter pit,” but this problem was resolved by calcium sprays ( Syrgianidis, 2004 ). The fruit maintains firmness, juiciness, and flavor very well in

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Andrés Mayorga-Gómez, Savithri U. Nambeesan, Timothy Coolong and Juan Carlos Díaz-Pérez

+ deficiency disorders such as bitter pit in apple and BER in peppers, tomatoes, and watermelons ( Gilliham et al., 2011 ; White and Broadley, 2003 ). Initiation of BER often occurs in the distal portion of the fruit as water-soaked spots that eventually

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Yosef Al Shoffe, Abdul Sattar Shah, Jacqueline F. Nock and Christopher B. Watkins

than 3 °C ( Moran et al., 2010 ; Watkins et al., 2004 ). Conditioning has little effect on quality factors such as flesh firmness, titratable acidity (TA), and soluble solids concentrations (SSC), although bitter pit incidence and skin greasiness may

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Thomas Sotiropoulos and Nikolaos Koutinas

not show the postharvest physiological disorders ( Watkins, 2003 ) “external browning” or “water core,” but some years, fruits showed “bitter pit.” However, this problem was resolved by calcium sprays. Fig. 1. Fruits of the apple cultivar Eris. Table 1

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koutinas and Antonios Petridis

rootstock over a period of 3 years (from the fifth until the seventh year of the trees). During storage, fruits of ‘Achilles’, like its parent ‘Firiki’, do not show symptoms of the physiological disorder “bitter pit” or “external browning.” The only

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Torrance R. Schmidt, Don C. Elfving, James R. McFerson and Matthew D. Whiting

-fruit sample from each tree was rated for visual defects, including sunburn, bitter pit, and splitting. Fruit russet incidence and severity was recorded in categories of stem bowl, fruit shoulder, smooth solid, and net type on fruit flanks. Fruit

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii and Zabihollah Zamani

intensity of fruit red color, although we took a note of the color intensity and pattern. At harvest, each individual fruit was gently wiped with a damp cloth and the percentage of fruit with visible russet, minor cracks, bitter pit, and sunburn on the fruit

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Fan-Hsuan Yang, Lisa W. DeVetter, Bernadine C. Strik and David R. Bryla

concluded that insufficient Ca or an imbalance of Ca with other nutrients (P, Mg, K, etc.) can cause bitter pit disorder in apple [ Malus × sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] ( de Freitas et al., 2015 ; Ferguson and Watkins, 1989