variegated foliage ( Berghage and Wolnick, 2000 ). Color in reproductive and vegetative tissues is attributed to pigments, including chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, and anthocyanins ( Lightbourn et al., 2008 ). Specifically, anthocyanins are
Hsing-Ying Chung, Ming-Yih Chang, Chia-Chyi Wu and Wei Fang
anthocyanin and appears red; therefore, it is used for color enhancement in salads ( Gazula et al., 2007 ). Lee et al. (2009) found that red leaf lettuce can help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in mice. Current plant factories with full electric
Aparna Gazula, Matthew D. Kleinhenz, Joseph C. Scheerens and Peter P. Ling
; Nogués et al., 1998 ; Woodall and Stewart, 1998 ) and, possibly, human health ( Keevil et al., 2000 ; Mazza and Miniati, 1993 ; Wang et al., 1999 ), the amounts and distributions of chlorophylls and anthocyanins contribute significantly to leaf color
Gregor Osterc, Maja Mikulic Petkovsek, Franci Stampar, Biljana Kiprovski, Blanka Ravnjak and Joze Bavcon
; Grey-Wilson, 1988 , 2002 ; Mathew, 2013 ). The flower color is a result of anthocyanin formation in the flower petals and it depends on the pH of the petal sap and on the degree of irradiation. Common cyclamen, compared with persian cyclamen ( C
Philip M. Sheridan and Richard R. Mills
Sarracenia L. is a genus of insectivorous plants confined to wetlands of the United States and Canada. Green mutants, lacking red pigmentation in the leaves, flowers, and growing point, have been found in most Sarracenia species. Controlled crosses were made using green mutants from S. rubra Walter ssp. gulfensis Schnell, S. purpurea L., S. psittacina Mich., and S. leucophylla Raf. Self-pollination of mutant green individuals in four different species resulted in green offspring, whereas reciprocal crosses with respective wild-types resulted in red offspring. Three of six self-pollinated heterozygous S. rubra ssp. gulfensis yielded offspring exhibiting a 3 red : 1 green ratio. Progeny from a testcross and two self-pollinated heterozygous plants of S. purpurea fit the expected ratios, whereas offspring from two S. purpurea crosses had significant deviations in field and laboratory sowing experiments. Offspring from testcrosses with S. rubra Walter ssp. jonesii (Wherry) Wherry met expected ratios under field conditions. Interspecific crosses between green individuals resulted in green offspring. These results suggest that anthocyanin pigmentation is controlled by two alleles at a single locus, with red dominant to green.
David A. Felicetti and Larry E. Schrader
economically important to Washington state, they show moderate sunburn susceptibility in the Pacific northwestern United States, and they contain anthocyanins. The intent of this study was to characterize the changes in pigments in an attempt to understand
Surawit Wannakrairoj and Haruyuki Kamemoto
A scheme for the genetic control of purple spathes in Anthurium is proposed. The recessive allele p modifies the color of anthocyanins controlled by the M and O loci. A spathe is purple when the genotype is M-O-pp. If the P locus is dominant, M-O- is red, while mmO - is orange. The p allele has no effect on the -00 (white) genotype.
Abby K. van den Berg and Timothy D. Perkins
A field-portable tool for nondestructive foliar anthocyanin content estimation would be beneficial to researchers in many areas of plant science. An existing commercial chlorophyll content meter was modified to measure an index of anthocyanin content. The ability of the experimental anthocyanin meter (ACM) to estimate total extractable anthocyanin content was tested in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) leaves representing several subjective color categories collected from a variety of field sites in northwestern Vermont on several dates in Autumn 2003. Overall, there was a significant linear relationship between anthocyanin content index (ACI) and total extractable anthocyanin content (r2 = 0.872, P < 0.001). Therefore, the ACM appears to be an effective tool for estimation of relative anthocyanin content in large samples of autumn sugar maple leaves.
Hong Y. Yoon, Sung R. Kim, Seung W. Lee and In S. Chung
The effects of various media, varying concentrations of sucrose, plant growth regulators, and inorganic salts such as KNO3, KH2PO4 and NH4NO3 on callus Formation and anthocyanin synthesis in carrot cell culture were studied. The greatest calli and anthocyanin pigments were obtained by SH and Nitsch & Nitsch medium, respectively. Nitsch & Nitsch medium supplemented with 55g/l sucrose, 0.2g/l NAA and 0.1g/l BA was effective for both callus and anthocyanin production. Anthocyanin synthesis was accelerated by increasing concentration of KNO3, while suppressed by NH4NO3. However, KH2PO4 promoted anthocyanin synthesis at half strength. These results suggest that physiological factors on anthocyanin production by plant cell culture could provide the possibility of application to other crops for secondary metabolites production and mass production system establishment of anthocyanin as an important natural pigment in cosmetic and food industry.
Nicholi Vorsa and James J. Polashock
The flavonoids of american cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) are documented to be beneficial for human health. Among their benefits is a high antioxidant potential, with anthocyanin glycosides being the main contributors. Flavonoid glucose conjugates are reported to be more bioavailable than those with other sugar conjugates. The anthocyanin glycosides of V. macrocarpon fruit are mainly galactosides and arabinosides of the aglycones, cyanidin and peonidin, with less than 8% glucosides. In contrast, the fruit anthocyanins of another cranberry species, V. oxycoccus L. were found to be largely glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. Interspecific hybrids between these two species were intermediate to the parental species in the proportion of fruit anthocyanin glucosides. About half the progeny (1:1 segregation) in a backcross population (to V. macrocarpon) maintained the relatively high anthocyanin glucoside ratio. In this study, we demonstrate the genetic manipulation of anthocyanin glycosylation in cranberry using interspecific hybridization, resulting in dramatically increased glucose-conjugated anthocyanins.