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Edna Pesis and Rosa Marinansky

Application of acetaldehyde (AA) at 90 to 360 mm to intact grape berries (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sultanina and Vitis vinifera L. cv. 103) caused an increase in CO2 production rate and a reduction in ethylene evolution rate. The increase in CO2 production rate was accompanied by a decrease in juice acidity without any change in the total soluble solids content. Addition of ACC to berry halves dramatically increased ethylene production, which was inhibited by AA. Ethanol, applied at the same concentrations as AA, neither caused a reduction in ethylene evolution nor inhibited the conversion of ACC to ethylene. Chemical name used: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC).

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Bhaskar R. Bondada

rust mite feeding J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 116 663 668 Al-Khatib, K. Parker, R. Fuerst, P. 1993 Wine grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) response to simulated herbicide drift Weed Technol. 7 97 102 Baker-Brosh, K.F. Peet, R.K. 1997 The ecological significance

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Krista Shellie and D. Michael Glenn

concentrations determine maximum daily leaf conductance of field-grown Vitis vinifera L. plants Plant Cell Environ. 18 511 521 Cortell, J.M. Halbleib, M. Gallagher, A.V. Righetti, T.L. Kennedy, J

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R. Paul Schreiner and Carolyn F. Scagel

.L. Vasconcelos, M.C. 2004 Effects of Mesocriconema xenoplax on Vitis vinifera and associated mycorrhizal fungi J. Nematol. 36 193 201 Ravnskov, S. Wu, Y. Graham, J.H. 2003 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi differentially affect expression of genes coding for

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R.K. Striegler, G.T. Berg, M. Rothberg and D. Zoldoske

Using subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is increasing in California vineyards. Reports from growers indicate increased yield, increased water-use efficiency, enhanced soil pest control, and reduced canopy disease pressure for SDI when compared to aboveground drip irrigation (AGDI). However, little information is available in the literature regarding this relatively new irrigation technology for grapes and other perennial crops. A long-term trial was established to evaluate the performance of AGDI and SDI in a mature `Thompson Seedless' raisin vineyard. Portions of a furrow irrigated vineyard block were converted to AGDI and SDI before budburst in 1993. Vine performance, water use, and irrigation system performance data are being collected. As part of this trial, changes in root distribution were examined after harvest in Nov. 1995. Treatments included AGDI, SDI, and furrow irrigation. Root distribution was quantified using the trench profile method. Trenches were opened perpendicular to the row and ≈30 cm from the vine. Roots were mapped along the profile wall using a 1 × 1 m frame, which was divided into one hundred 10 × 10 cm sections. Roots were counted and categorized into four size classes: small (<2 mm), medium (2 to 5 mm), large (5 to 12 mm), and very large (>12 mm). Root distribution differed significantly for AGDI, SDI, and furrow irrigation. The type of irrigation used had the greatest impact on small roots. SDI had more small roots and total roots than AGDI or furrow irrigation. High root densities were observed near the emitter under AGDI and SDI. In addition, both drip irrigation treatments had higher root density near the soil surface than furrow irrigation. Root intrusion was not observed in the SDI treatment.

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F.F. Ahmed, A.M. Akl, F.M. El-Morsy and M.A. Ragab

Four biofertilizers (active dry yeast, phosphorene, rhizobacterium, and nitrobein) were used to fertilize `Red Roomy' grapevines. Growth and nutritional status of the vines as affected by such fertilizers during 1995 and 1996 were studied. Results showed that fertilizing the vine with all biofertilizers caused a material improvement in shoot length, leaf area, and cane thickness, and effectively enhance the nutritional status of the vines. The favorable effects of such fertilizers were in the following descending order: phosphorene, rhizobacterium, nitrobein, and active dry yeast. A great increase on growth and nutritional status of `Red Roomy' grapevines occurred as a result of supplying the vines with phosphorene or rhizobacterium as good, new biofertilizers.

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G.T. Berg and R.K. Striegler

The availability and cost of labor are important concerns for many California wine grape growers. Greater state and federal labor regulations, increased grower liability, increased efforts to control illegal immigration, and mandated increases in the minimum wage are causing growers to investigate production systems that may reduce labor requirements and costs. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the influence of training system and mechanization on vegetative growth, yield, fruit composition, labor requirements, and production costs for wine grapes grown in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Barbera vines grafted on Freedom rootstock were used in the experiment. Treatment variables examined were training system (bilateral cordon, non-positioned vs. bilateral cordon, vertical shoot positioned) and pruning method (hand vs. machine pre-pruning with hand follow-up). The experimental design used was a randomized complete block with data analyzed as a factorial. There were five blocks and all treatment combinations were evaluated. Data were collected during the 1994 and 1995 seasons for vegetative growth, yield, fruit composition, pruning labor requirements, and machinery performance. Few treatment effects were observed on vegetative growth, yield, and fruit composition during the course of this study. When significant differences were noted for these parameters, training system had a greater impact than pruning method. In contrast, labor requirements and production costs displayed a significant response to pruning method. Machine pre-pruning reduced pruning labor requirements from 41 man-hours per acre to 24–28 man-hours per acre per year. Pruning labor requirements were reduced by ≈40% and the costs associated with pruning were reduced by ≈30%.

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Alison L. Reeve, Patricia A. Skinkis, Amanda J. Vance, Katherine R. McLaughlin, Elizabeth Tomasino, Jungmin Lee and Julie M. Tarara

composition of cv. Sangiovese ( Vitis vinifera L.) J. Intl. Sci. Vigne Vin. 47 21 33 Frioni, T. Zhuang, S. Palliotti, A. Sivilotti, P. Falchi, R. Sabbatini, P. 2017 Leaf removal and cluster thinning efficiencies are highly modulated by environmental

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Thiago Vieira da Costa, João Alexio Scarpare Filho and Matthew W. Fidelibus

California’s San Joaquin Valley has been a global leader in raisin production for more than a century ( Fidelibus, 2014 ). Most of California’s raisins are made from ‘Thompson Seedless’ grapes ( Vitis vinifera ) that are hand harvested onto paper

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Mercy Olmstead, Timothy W. Miller, Callie S. Bolton and Carol A. Miles

legislative framework. 20 July 2012. < http://orgprints.org/10608/1/stolz-schmid-2007-ORWINE_d2.7_consumers_research.pdf > Sweet, R.M. Schreiner, R.P. 2010 Alleyway cover crops have little influence on Pinot noir grapevines ( Vitis vinifera L.) in two western