Prunus mume belongs to the family Rosaceae, subfamily Prunoideae, and was cultivated in China more than 3000 years ago for its ornamental qualities and its fruit ( Chen, 1996 ). As an early-blooming garden ornamental, mei is widely cultivated in
A genetic linkage map of Prunus has been constructed using an interspecific F2 population generated from self-pollinating a single F1 plant of a cross between a dwarf peach selection (54P455) and an almond cultivar (Padre). This map consists of approximately 80 markers including 10 isozymes. 12 plum genomic, 19 almond genomic and 40 peach mesocarp specific cDNA clones. The backbone map will be used for identifying the genomic locations and characterization of genes governing important economic traits in the genus Prunus. Of particular interests are those genes associated with fruit ripening and mesocarp development in peach and almond.
Embryos of plum, peach, and nectarine (less than 1 mm long) enlarged during in ovulo embryo culture. Optimum culture conditions for Prunus embryo enlargement consisted of Stewart and Hsu support system and medium with 6% sucrose at 27°C. ‘Blackamber’ plum embryos subsequently cultured on a Smith et al. medium and stratified at 1° for 1 month produced plants. This provides an easy method to culture small embryos from very early-maturing Prunus genotypes, and allows their use in breeding programs for the improvement of early-maturing genotypes.
rigorous conditions and inaccessibility of the Tibetan Plateau, few studies regarding the genetic diversity in plant populations have been conducted ( Guo et al., 2006 ). Prunus mira Koehne ( Prunus mira Koehne Kov et. Kpst) has been recognized as an
Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) originated in south-eastern China and is one of the major fruit trees in Japan. The major cultivars of Japanese apricot are self-incompatible. Self-incompatibility of Japanese apricot is gametophytic, the same as other Prunus species. Since S-genotype of every cultivar remained unclear until now, we examined molecular markers to determine S-genotype which was explored based on the information about S-RNase of other Prunus spiecies. Total DNA isolated from six cultivars was PCR-amplified by oligonucleotide primers designed from conserved region of Prunus S-RNase Every six cultivars yielded two amplified bands. In total, seven kind of polymorphism in molecular size were determined among those six cultivar, controlled pollination tests were carried out among cultivars that showed same band pattern, and these cross-combinations indicated cross-incompatibility. So, we were made clear that S-genotype of Japanese apricot could effectively and easily be determined by PCR method, and that there exists seven S-gene at least.
Excessive soil and water boron (B) occur widely in California, often in conjunction with high soil salinity. Descriptions of the symptoms of B toxicity and quantification of its impact on Prunus species are not available. In these experiments we describe the impact of high B and saline conditions on uptake, distribution and growth depression in almond, peach, plum and peach/almond hybrid rootstocks
A series of experiments are described that indicate an important additive effect of B on sensitivity of Prunus species to salinity. Boron concentrations in excess of lppm in the irrigation solution, significantly impair plant growth under moderate (non-limiting) salinity conditions and lead to plant death at higher salinity levels. Symptoms of B toxicity in Prunus include stem necrosis and vascular occlusion. Unlike most other species, B does not appear to accumulate in the leaf margins and leaf symptoms are generally not observed. Differences in sensitivity of a range of Prunus species to B toxicity are described.
Initial results suggest that differences in rootstock sensitivity to B and salinity are the result of differential uptkake and partitioning of B, Na and Cl within the plant.
Weed competition reduced the growth of young peach and plum rootstoeks. Heavy sprinkler irrigation increased the phytotoxicity of simazine to young Prunus rootstoeks. Recovery from severe foliar injury occurred during the season and normal growth resulted at the lower rates of simazine. No detrimental residual effect on tree growth was noted during the following season.
Rooting capacities of semihard wood cuttings from 33 Prunus fruticosa Pall, × P. avium L. and reciprocal crosses were compared under intermittent mist. Seven selections rooted with greater than 80% success, and 16 clones with less than 30% success. Roots developed from petioles of one clone.
Two new, patented, vegetatively propagated Prunus rootstocks are being released for commercial use. These rootstocks are hybrids of an almond selection, Almond B, crossed with Peach Selection 1-8-2 by the late Carl J. Hansen. These rootstocks are being released primarily for use with almond but also can be used as rootstocks for peach, plum, and prune.
In vitro germination of pollen from almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch), peach [P. persica (L.) Batsch], apricot (P. armeniaca L.), plum (P. salicina Lindl.), and sweet cherry (P. avium L.) after freezing in liquid nitrogen was similar to unfrozen pollen. In vivo germination of frozen pollen was confirmed with apricot and cherry.