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Juan I. Valiente-Banuet and Alejandro Gutiérrez-Ochoa

, bell, serrano, poblano, New Mexican (all Capsicum annuum L.), habanero ( Capsicum chinense , Jacq.), and manzano ( Capsicum pubescens R. & P.) ( SIACON, 2014 ). Piquin peppers [ C. annuum L. var. glabriusculum (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill] are

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Derek W. Barchenger, Robert A. Clark III, Paul A. Gniffke, Dolores R. Ledesma, Shih-wen Lin, Peter Hanson and Sanjeet Kumar

Pepper ( Capsicum annuum ) is an important crop worldwide, with an estimated 25% of people consuming some form (vegetable, spice, or food colorant) of pepper daily ( Smith, 2015 ). Originating in the Americas, peppers have been widely adopted into

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Md. Jahedur Rahman, Haruhisa Inden and Masaaki Kirimura

Sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) is an economically important vegetable crop all over the world. It is often grown intensively in greenhouses. In the greenhouse, irrigation is necessary to ensure stable yields with high quality. For sustainable

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Judy A. Thies and Richard L. Fery

Two isogenic sets of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) lines (differing at the N root-knot nematode resistance locus) were characterized for resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood races 1 and 2, M. hapla Chitwood, and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood in greenhouse and growth chamber tests. The isogenic sets of C. annuum were `Charleston Belle' (NN) and `Keystone Resistant Giant' (nn-recurrent parent), and `Carolina Wonder' (NN) and `Yolo Wonder B' (nn-recurrent parent). Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 is pathogenic to C. annuum. `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' exhibited high resistance to M. arenaria race 1. Their respective recurrent backcross parents, `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B', were susceptible to M. arenaria. Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. javanica are not highly pathogenic to pepper. However, `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' both exhibited higher (P≤0.05) resistance to M. arenaria race 2 and M. javanica than `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B'. Meloidogyne hapla is pathogenic to pepper. Both `Charleston Belle' and `Carolina Wonder' and their respective recurrent parents, `Keystone Resistant Giant' and `Yolo Wonder B', were susceptible to M. hapla. We concluded that the N gene confers resistance to M. arenaria races 1 and 2, and M. javanica in C. annuum, but the N gene does not condition resistance to M. hapla.

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Brian A. Kahn

the productivity of chilli/dwarf bean ( Capsicum annuum / Phaseolus vulgaris L.) intercropping in Sri Lanka J. Agron. Crop Sci. 180 53 58 Duval, J.R. 2005 Relay-intercropping does not reduce strawberry yield in an annual-hill production system

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J. L. Jacobs and C. T. Stephens

Several growth hormone combinations and silver nitrate concentrations were examined for their effect on regeneration of different pepper genotypes. Primary leaf explants from in vitro seedlings were cultured on a revised Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin and 1.6% glucose. Combinations of different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 0-5 mg/l, and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0-5 mg/l, were tested to determine the most effective medium for shoot primordium formation. Experiments with IAA and BAP did not result in a specific growth hormone combination appropriate for regeneration of all genotypes tested. Of the silver nitrate concentrations tested, 10 mg/l resulted in the best shoot and leaf differentiation and reduced callus formation. Differences in organogenic response of individual genotypes were evaluated on a single regeneration medium. Whole plants were regenerated from 11 of 63 genotypes examined. Based on these experiments, a reproducible regeneration system for pepper was developed with a total of 500 plants regenerated to date.

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J. L. Jacobs and C. T. Stephens

Several growth hormone combinations and silver nitrate concentrations were examined for their effect on regeneration of different pepper genotypes. Primary leaf explants from in vitro seedlings were cultured on a revised Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with auxin, cytokinin and 1.6% glucose. Combinations of different concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 0-5 mg/l, and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), 0-5 mg/l, were tested to determine the most effective medium for shoot primordium formation. Experiments with IAA and BAP did not result in a specific growth hormone combination appropriate for regeneration of all genotypes tested. Of the silver nitrate concentrations tested, 10 mg/l resulted in the best shoot and leaf differentiation and reduced callus formation. Differences in organogenic response of individual genotypes were evaluated on a single regeneration medium. Whole plants were regenerated from 11 of 63 genotypes examined. Based on these experiments, a reproducible regeneration system for pepper was developed with a total of 500 plants regenerated to date.

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Nicole L. Shaw, George J. Hochmuth, Steven A. Sargent and Ed A. Hanlon

`Camelot' bell pepper was grown in a N fertigation study on sandy soil using polyethylene-mulched and fumigated beds. Portions of N (0%, 33%, 67%, 100% of total season N) were applied at bed formation. The remaining N was injected weekly into the drip irrigation system. Total N application treatments were 64, 128, 192, and 256 kg·ha–1. Early and total-season marketable fruit yields increased linearly with N rate. Preplant fertilizer proportion did not influence early yields, but late and total-season marketable fruit yields decreased linearly as preplant fertilizer proportion increased. Petiole sap NO3-N concentration increased with increasing N rates, but decreased linearly as preplant fertilizer proportion increased. Petiole sap NO3-N concentrations fell below critical levels for all N rates and preplant fertilizer proportions early in the season. Whole-leaf N concentrations were higher than critical values (>40 g·kg–1) throughout the season. Preplant fertilizer proportion had a significant linear effect on whole-leaf N concentrations for all sampling periods. Petiole sap was better correlated to yield data than whole-leaf N.

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Kathleen M. Sullivan and William J. Bramlage

Seven types of chile peppers were tested for differences in susceptibility to postharvest chilling injury (CI). Cherry, cubanelle, Hungarian wax (HW), poblano, serrano, and both mature-green and full-color (red) jalapeño fruit were stored at 2.5, 7, and 15 °C for 0 to 30 days. External C2H4 production at 12 and 24 hours after removal from storage and internal C2H4 concentration at 24 hours were measured. There was no significant difference in C2H4 production after the first 12 hours, but serrano produced significantly less C2H4 than the other types during the second 12 hours. Among the cultivars there were differences in the amounts of internal C2H4 measured: HW had the highest levels measured, and serrano had undetectable levels. CI has been observed on bell and some chile pepper cultivars as small black pits, and the recommended nonchilling storage temperature is 7 °C for all peppers. In this study, scald (a surface browning) was observed on HW and cubanelle fruit in addition to pitting, which occurred on all the cultivars. Susceptibility to chilling varied among pepper types in this study. HW peppers were the most susceptible, manifesting scald after 4 days at 2.5 °C and scald and pits after 16 days at 7 °C. Serrano fruit were the most resistant to CI, only pitting after 23 days at 2.5 °C, and having no symptoms after storage at 7 °C for 30 days. Cherry and poblano peppers developed pits after 8 days at 2.5 °C. Both green and red jalapeños pitted after 12 days at 2.5 °C, and cubanelles had scald after 16 days at 2.5 °C. Poblano fruit had large, deep pits after 8 days at 7 °C, cherry peppers pitted after 12 days, and both green and red jalapeño fruit pitted after 16 days at 7 °C. Both pits and scald were observed on cubanelle fruit after 23 days at 7 °C. Recommendations for storage of peppers should be expanded to accommodate differences among cultivars.

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Cecilia McGregor, Vickie Waters, Savithri Nambeesan, Dan MacLean, Byron L. Candole and Patrick Conner

The oomycete Phytophthora capsici Leonian causes root and fruit rot, stem blight, and foliar blight in pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) ( Leonian, 1922 ) causing global yield losses ( Babadoost, 2004 ). Currently the disease is managed through the