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-based substrates by Jackson et al. (2009) , who suggested it is likely a result of plant roots filling the substrate voids created by decomposition and thus preventing the loss of volume by microbial degradation. Table 1. Analysis of variance for physical

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matter to the soil ( Gugino et al., 2009 ). Both management practices can affect soil microbial activity ( Beare et al., 1997 ; Frey et al., 1999 ; Lupwayi et al., 1998 ; Tu et al., 2006 ). Reduced tillage can slow decomposition of soil organic matter

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impregnates wood material with sulfuric acid in the presence of hot gases (933 °C) resulting in a decrease in decomposable cellulose, which results in lower microbial activity and need for N ( Bollen and Glennie, 1961 ); and 4) a process for treating wood

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NO 3 -N concentrations were monitored. Statistical analyses. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model with the GLIMMIX procedure in SAS (version 9.4; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). All data were checked for normality, homogeneity of variance, and

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and seasonal pattern of rainfall is expected to have higher variance than today; hence, concern arises about disruption to food production systems because of drought or excess water. Illustrative examples are drawn substantially from annual and

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storage tissues such as the crown and woody stems and in the fall from senescing leaves ( Mohadjer et al., 2001 ; Rempel et al., 2004 ; Strik et al., 2004 ) and externally from decomposition of plant tissues such as senesced leaves and roots and pruned

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analysis. Data were subjected to analysis of variance. Storage treatments were compared with the control, defined as the nonfiltered (pH and EC) or filtered (DOC, TDN, and nutrient ions) samples analyzed on the day of collection (day 0), using Dunnett

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ornamentals ( Klett et al., 1972 ). But, microorganisms involved in decomposition of raw wood residues are more efficient than higher plants in nitrogen absorption and assimilation ( Alexander, 1961 ). Large amount of nitrogen must, therefore, be added to wood

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the importance of organic matter stability and carbon (C):nitrogen (N) ratio. The high C:N ratio of wood substrates, resulting in the tie-up of N resulting from microbial immobilization, and wood substrate stability (decomposition) over time have been

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). Because composts applied as an organic mulch on the soil surface are decomposed much more slowly than those incorporated into the soil, they can serve as a season-long mulch. They can also improve the water-holding capacity and reduce the bulk density of

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