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Surveys of vegetable growers in a six-county region in western New York were conducted in 1997 to determine which cover cropping practices were being used on commercial vegetable operations; to identify producers' needs for further research and information, and to assess the impact of cooperative extension programs in this area. In a broad survey, 118 responses were returned out of 315 surveys sent (37%). Respondents represented >37,000 acres (14974 ha) of vegetable production, or ≈53% of the vegetable acreage in the region. Vegetable acreage per operation ranged from 1 to 4000 acres (0.4 to 1619 ha). Sixty-nine percent responded that they grew cover crops on a total of 15,426 acres (6243 ha). Oats (Avena sativa L.), rye (Secale cereale), clover (Trifolium pratense), and wheat (Triticum vulgare) were the most commonly used cover crops. Seventy-six percent of the reported cover-cropped acres were planted to small grains, and 19% to legumes, almost entirely clovers. In open ended questions, the most important benefits of cover cropping identified by respondents were erosion control (46% of respondents) and organic matter additions (42%). The most important problems associated with cover crops were that they interfere with spring field work or fall harvest (26%), and that they are difficult to incorporate or plow under (24%). A targeted survey of nineteen onion (Allium cepa L.) producers in the same region measured the recent adoption of sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) and sorghum-sudan hybrid (Sorghum bicolor L. × S. sudanense) cover crops, the focus of the several years of extension research and educational programs. Nine of the onion producers had adopted the practice, and six of these had done so since the beginning of these extension programs. The implications of these results for research and extension are discussed.

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Irrigation of sand-based golf greens with ozonated water may affect grass growth and chemical processes in the root zone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ozonated and aerated water on bentgrass growth and root zone chemistry in sand-based greens over a 12-month period. Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) cores [10 cm diameter × 12 cm depth (3.9 × 4.7 inches)] were collected from a sand-based bentgrass nursery and placed in columns designed to collect leachate water. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and irrigated with 1) municipal tap water [6 to 8 mg·L-1 (ppm) dissolved oxygen (DO)], 2) aerated tap water (12 mg·L-1 DO), or 3) ozonated tap water (aerated plus 0.8 mg·L-1 ozone). Leachate was periodically collected and analyzed for pH, electrolytic conductivity (EC), and nutrients. Grass clippings were weighed and analyzed for total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Roots were periodically collected from selected cores to determine root distribution. At 40 and 90 days after initiating water treatments, bentgrass irrigated with ozonated water had a higher chlorophyll index than bentgrass irrigated with tap water. After 128 and 157 days, bentgrass clipping weights were significantly greater for the cores irrigated with ozonated water and, to a lesser extent, aerated water. At 61 and 149 days, nitrate (NO3-N) and EC levels were elevated in leachate from aerated and ozonated samples, suggesting increased mineralization of organic matter in those bentgrass cores. Ozonated water increased bentgrass crown weights, but had no effect on root mass. Ozonated water did not affect bentgrass tissue N and P concentrations. Statistically significant effects from ozonated water occurred within the first few months, but sustained benefits were negligible.

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, organic matter in agronomic systems. Also work to create a greater understanding of the overall systems approach to nutrient management in organic systems. Much still to do.”; and “when helping people interpret soil tests, I'll have a better explanation of

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potential for improving yields, but cereal crops generally result in higher levels of soil organic matter than legumes, help to suppress weeds, and immobilize soil N, which can reduce nitrate leaching during winter months ( Snapp et al., 2005 ). Fall

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cation exchange capacity (CEC) is determined by the amount of clay present and its mineralogy as well as the content and characteristics of the organic matter fraction. Where the CEC is increased with regular organic matter additions, the capacity of soil

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compost will be light and dusty and wet compost will be heavy and clumpy. Organic matter Lower organic matter content indicates the presence of an inorganic component such as sand, clay, silt, or man-made materials such as plastics and metals. Particle

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availability, interactions, and predictions of potential problems. Soil analysis also reveals information relative to soil health. Soil organic matter levels in pecan orchards have received little attention. Organic matter can enhance soil productivity in many

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on methyl bromide, which is now being replaced with other synthetic fumigants or nonfumigant based systems ( Louws, 2009 ; Sydorovych et al., 2006 ). Due to warm climatic conditions, organic matter and soil fertility can be depleted rapidly

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Sales of organic food reached $14.6 billion in the United States in 2005 and of those sales, fruit and vegetable sales comprised 2.48% of the total U.S. agricultural market share [ Organic Trade Association (OTA), 2006 ]. The organic fruit and

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little organic matter and low intrinsic fertility ( Perkins, 1987 ). Organic management systems use cover crops and compost to increase soil organic matter and build fertility, but a hot, humid climate such as in the southeastern United States can rapidly

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