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Abstract

Embryos extracted from developing apple fruit were cultured in vitro. Immature embryos (up to 4 weeks post anthesis), cultured without their testa and endosperm, produced only callus tissue. Six and a half-week-old embryos produced multiple shoots and the percentage of embryos producing shoots rather than callus tissue increased with time. Ten and a half-week-old embryos produced the highest number of shoots per embryo, after which a decrease in multiple shoot formation was observed with mature (14 weeks post anthesis) embryos producing 1 shoot and 1 root per embryo. Simultaneously, embryonic-axis free cotyledon cultures were established from embryos of various ages. Adventitious shoots developed from cotyledon explants, and the number of multiple shoots formed, increased with time (June-September). Cotyledons extracted periodically from mature fruit stored at 3°C continued to produce multiple shoots in culture, but this gradually decreased with time (15-120 days). After 6 months in cold storage, cotyledon explants failed to develop any shoots.

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obtained from a FAWN (Florida Automated Weather Network) station. Chilling (hours below 7.2 °C) was determined within each location starting during the first week of November and ending on 31 Jan. Three shoots representing growth that occurred the

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and Marble, 2022 ). An additional cultural or nonchemical method that could have potential as a weed management tool is “layering” or stratified substrates ( Khamare et al., 2022 ). This is a new area of research in which multiple substrates, or the

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rates of each tree. In November of 2010, trees were carefully separated from the soils. Trees were washed with deionized water to remove all soil and all leaves were removed. Trees were cut at the root and shoot interface. Shoots and roots were dried at

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South China, and shoots twice after harvest, followed by dormancy during November to December. In the spring, the floral bud differentiates and then blossoms in late March to early May, followed by fruit development from late March to August. Sample

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shelf life during retailing, and improve landscape performance for the final consumers ( Parađiković et al., 2019 ). Formulated biostimulant products often combine multiple active ingredients and may include microbial and non-microbial components to

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; Unrath, 1999 ). It is also very effective in the control of fire blight in the shoot phase of this disease ( Buban et al., 2004 ; Norelli and Miller, 2004 ; Rademacher, 2004 ; Rademacher and Kober, 2003 ; Yoder et al., 1999 ). The timings for the

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of samples per parent genotype was 28 as a result of the lack of synchronous flushing by plants on our sampling dates. For plants with multiple flush shoots, the first shoot found to contain leafminers was used to determine abundance for that

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experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications of each Se treatment in separate containers holding six plants each. Plants were harvested before anthesis 14 d after Se treatments were initiated. Shoots were triple-rinsed with

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Lespinasse, 2001 ; Sherif, 2013 ), and increased branching can improve early flowering of mango due to availability of terminal shoots ( Oosthuyse and Jacobs, 1995 ), although similar relationships are unclear for macadamia. Therefore, it is necessary to

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