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Global radiation on cloudless days within apple trees varied considerably. At most times on any day absorption of global radiation was dependant on solar zenith angle and was greatest between 1 and 2m from the tree tops. Measurements of penetrating global radiation were similar whether made on E-W or N-W tracks and differed little in trees on M.26 and M.7 except deep in the canopy where energy levels were lower in the latter.

Attenuation of infra-red radiation was less than visible resulting in higher levels of infra-red relative to visible deep in the canopy.

Apples from trees on M.7 had less red color than those on M.26 but the amount of red color formed was positively correlated with global radiation. At the same global radiation fruit color was better on M.26 than on M.7. This may, in part, be a rootstock or tree training effect. An estimated minimum energy of 250 cal cm-2 day-1 was necessary for the initiation and maintenance of red color in apples.

Open Access

The gene encoding S-adenosylmethionine hydrolase (SAMase) was transferred to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, cv. large red cherry) as a means of reducing ethylene biosynthesis in the ripening fruit. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the penultimate precursor to ethylene in plants. is converted to methylthioadenosine and homoserine by SAMase thereby reducing the capacity of the transgenic plant to synthesize ethylene. We have used both constitutive and fruit-specific tomato promoters to regulate SAMase gene expression. Whereas the constitutive CaMV 35S:SAMase chimeric gene expressed active SAMase and conferred a 50-60% reduction in ethylene biosynthesis in a leaf disc assay, there was little effect on fruit ethylene synthesis or postharvest ripening physiology. The use of either the tomato E4 or E8 promoters restricted SAMase expression to ripening fruit which caused a substantial (80-90%) reduction in fruit ethylene synthesis and a profound effect on fruit ripening. SAMase expression levels reached 0.1% of total cellular protein as measured on western blots using anti-SAMase monoclonal antibodies. Field trial fruit picked al the mature green stage accumulated less lycopene and were twice as firm as controls over a six week period. Vine-ripened fruit had near-normal levels of lycopene, were firmer at harvest than controls, and did not lose firmness over a two week period. Taste, vitamin content and tomatine content were superior or equivalent to control tomatoes.

Free access

Twelve early to midseason ripening tomato cultivars were evaluated for early and total marketable yield, fruit size, and external characteristics under the cool, short growing season of northern New England. The acceptability of external and internal color, texture, and flavor of four cultivars was evaluated by a sensory panel of 50 members. There was little difference between cultivars in total yield. This was probably due to an early frost that destroyed much of the later ripening fruit. `Summerset' had the highest early and overall yields but the smallest fruit size. `Johnny's 361` had high overall yield and large fruit with good early yields. `Pilgrim' had high early yield, good overall yield, and fair fruit size. `Jetstar' and `Daybreak' fell into the middle of the range for total yield and fruit size, but `Jetstar' had very low early yield. `Pik Red' and `Pik Rite' had low early and total yields but good fruit size. `Moreton Hybrid' had fair early and total yields and small fruit size. In the sensory analysis, `Sunrise' had the highest rated external color, while `Moreton Hybrid' had the lowest rating. Internal color ratings did not vary greatly, although `Sunrise' was least acceptable in this characteristic. `Jetstar' was rated highest for flavor and texture, followed by `Moreton Hybrid', `Sunrise', and `Valley Girl'.

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Jalapeños are versatile peppers with both green and mature-red peppers used fresh and in processed products. Peppers can be dried, pickled whole in brine or as salted mash for sauces. Mature fruit can also be smoked and dried to produce chipotle which can be used in several ways including preparation of sauces. Although there are many individual cultivars of jalapeño peppers available, little is known of their processing characteristics. Most food processors still rely on fresh-market supplies rather than contracting specific cultivars which might provide better processing characteristics. A study was begun in Summer 2005 at LSU to provide information concerning the processing characteristics of commonly available jalapeño cultivars. Over a 3-year period, each cultivar will be evaluated in fresh form, as pickled whole fruit, as salted mash and as smoked chipotle. Besides good cultural production qualities, pepper cultivars that will be manufactured into processed products should have 1) acceptable and consistent heat content, 2) good stable color and, 3) consistent/suitable size (for whole pack). Seventeen jalapeño cultivars were evaluated in fresh green, brine-cured green and mature-red state for fruit surface color, average fruit weight, dry weight, and percent seed.

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Handgun treatments of abamectin and oil applied between mid-June and late August caused distinct epidermal rings where drops of spray liquid dried on the surface of pear fruit (Pyrus communis L.). The severity of epidermal injury was related to the concentration of oil in the abamectin spray mixture (abamectin applied without oil caused no fruit damage). Of six pear cultivars tested, `Anjou' was most susceptible to injury, followed by `Cornice' and `Bartlett'. `Sensation Red Bartlett', `Bosc', and `Seckel' showed little or no phytotoxicity symptoms from abamectin and oil treatments with oil concentrations from 0.125% to 2.0% (v/v). On sensitive cultivars, the concentration of oil should not exceed 0.25% (v/v) when combined with abamectin to reduce the risk of epidermal injury. Oil at 0.25% provides for adequate leaf penetration of abamectin and results in commercially acceptable spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control. Chemical names used: avermectin B1 (abamectin).

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red blush, sunburn blemishes, and whitening of the peel. Fruit with sunburn or red blush are downgraded to Class 3 and will not pass for export. Although older GS orchards are being replaced with more profitable cultivars, GS will remain an important

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effective for improving red fruit color of cultivars like McIntosh, contrary to previous studies that involved heading cuts in the summer. The thinning cuts were found to increase light distribution within the canopy while preventing excessive regrowth. For

Open Access
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appreciation to the Washington State Tree Fruit Research Commission for funds partially supporting this study. Names are necessary to report factually on available data; however, the USDA neither guarantees nor warrants the standard of the product, and the use

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97 ORAL SESSION 20 (Abstr. 524–531) Small Fruit/Viticulture: Production & Physiology of Raspberries/Blueberries/Cranberries

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