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Andrés Javier Peña Quiñones, Melba Ruth Salazar Gutierrez and Gerrit Hoogenboom

Severe weather, especially frost conditions between October and April, can be a significant threat to tree fruit production in temperate zones ( Yue et al., 2016 ). According to Snyder and de Melo-Abreu (2005) , the loss of crops due to frost is

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Christy T. Carter and Catharine M. Grieve

; Greenway and Munns, 1980 ). In most cases, exposure to salt stress results in injury or death resulting from salinity-induced nutritional disorders ( Grattan and Grieve, 1999 ). Yet many floral crops, including statice, cockscomb, stock, and sunflower, have

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Mark W. Farnham and Thomas Björkman

Broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. Italica Group) has risen from the status of a very minor vegetable in the United States in the middle of the 20th century to one of the top 10 vegetable crops in the country. Year 2009 statistics from the U

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Warren C. Stiles

Nutritional status of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees may influence regularity of cropping through effects of some nutrient elements at various stages of the floral initiation, development, pollination, fertilization and fruit setting process. Other elements may influence regularity of cropping more indirectly as consequences of their effects on physiological processes or by modifying the sensitivity of the tree to adverse environmental factors. This report provides a brief summary of reported impacts of mineral nutrition on regularity of cropping.

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Kimberly H. Krahl and William M. Randle

Petunia hybrida Vilm. is one of the major bedding plants grown worldwide, and, like most bedding plants, is grown primarily for its seasonal floral display. While increased floral and reflowering capacity have been the focus of breeding programs for many ornamental species, floral longevity has received little direct attention. Increased floral longevity would enhance the value of any crop grown for floral effect. In this study, four parental genotypes (two with short flower life, two with long flower life) were crossed in a partial diallel mating design to create six F1 families. The F1 individuals were then selfed and backcrossed to the appropriate parents to create F2 and backcross families. Data from parental and F1 genotypes were analyzed to determine general and specific combining ability for floral longevity in petunia. Results indicated the presence of significant additive gene effects and nonsignificant nonadditive gene effects for floral longevity in this germplasm. However, aberrant F2 and backcross family means were observed in all families. For each family, F2 and backcross means were lower than expected given normal Mendelian segregation. Further experiments will be necessary to elucidate the causes for the deviate F2 and backcross family means before specific recommendations for selecting for increased floral longevity in petunia can be made.

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Neil O. Anderson

The increasing number of crops being grown for the floriculture market has frustrated educators faced with limited classroom and laboratory time. Time constraints necessitate selection of crops to serve as examples of floral induction treatment(s) and provide an accurate scope of production requirements for all cultivated species. Since flowers are the primary reason for purchasing most floricultural products—with the notable exception of cut and potted foliage—the various treatments required for flower bud initiation and development were used to categorize potted plants. New and old crops (>70 species) are categorized for flower bud initiation and development requirements, including photoperiod (short, long day, day neutral; facultative/obligate responses), vernalization, temperature, autonomous, rest period, and dormancy. Crop-specific temperature, irradiance, and photoperiod interactions are noted, as well as temperature × photoperiod interactions. A course syllabus can be modified to ensure that at least one crop from each category is presented to serve as a model. It is recommended that the class focuses on example crop(s) from each floral induction category and then reviews other crops within each category for differences or similarities. This method allows coverage of floral induction categories without leaving information gaps in the students' understanding. This method was used with students in the Fall 1999, floriculture production class (Hort 4051) at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

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Don C. Wilkerson, Dan R. Lineberger and Priscilla J. Files

In response to the goals set forth in Target 2000, a long-range environmental plan for the Texas/Floral Industry developed by the TAMU Nursery/Floral Management Team in cooperation with the Texas Association of Nurserymen (TAN), an interactive, World Wide Web-based integrated pest management program (hortIPM) has been developed for commercial nursery and greenhouse growers. The objective of Target 2000 is to assist growers in initiation of innovative cultural and structural practices, which will result in the following changes by the year 2000: 1) reduce water consumption to 1990 levels; 2) reduce current fertilizer and pesticide usage by 50%; 3) lower current energy consumption by 25%; 4) reduce current solid wastes from agricultural plastics by 75%; 5) develop applications for municipal wastes and composted materials for nursery and floral crop production. More so than in any other cropping system, ornamental stock producers apply pesticides on a calendar basis regardless of pest damage to prevent cosmetic injury to their crops, thus reducing their marketability. As justification for this misuse of insecticides, growers cite the extraordinary low damage thresholds associated with their crops. Nursery and floral crops producers that have better access to educational resources and recommendations may be more inclined to follow biologically sound pest management principles. HortIPM is designed as a tool to facilitate access to pest management information and enhance IPM programs already in place. Currently, hortIPM is in the developmental phase, on the cusp of release to a number of sites for preliminary evaluation.

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Girish K. Panicker, Frank B. Matta and Patrick D. Gerard

139 ORAL SESSION 28 (Abstr. 622-628) Small Fruit/Viticulture: Crop Production Wednesday, 26 July, 10:00-11:45 a.m

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Tory Schmidt, Don Elfving and Jim McFerson

Poster Session 30—Fruit Crop Physiology 29 July 2006, 1:15 p.m.–2:00 p.m.

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J. Ray Frank and Daniel L. Kunkel

Since the IR-4 Project for Ornamental Uses was initiated in 1977, over 13,500 research trials have been conducted. This effort has lead to over 3100 label-registrations for fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, nematicides and growth regulators.

This cooperative program is conducted by Federal and State workers in conjunction with growers of nursery, floral crop and landscape plant materials.