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). Phytophthora capsici is a serious pathogen of solanaceous and cucurbit crops in many vegetable production regions of the United States ( Ristaino and Johnston, 1999 ). The crown rot phase of phytophthora blight can cause substantial economic losses on some

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observed that watermelon seed exudates inhibited Proso millet radicle growth and Phytophthora capsici sporangia formation ( Harrison et al., 2010 ). Exudates of some genotypes were highly inhibitory, whereas exudates of others did not inhibit growth. The

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Phytophthora capsici Leonian, the causal agent of crown rot, foliar blight, and fruit rot in many vegetable crops ( Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004 ). Currently, there are no commercial C. pepo cultivars immune to P. capsici , but sources of resistance to

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tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.)– Phytophthora capsici (Phytophthora root rot) interactions; tomatoes are an important greenhouse vegetable crop worldwide, and this is a common model system for plant–pathogen–water stress interactions ( Bostock et al

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inhibitors. Phytophthora capsici is known to infect plants species in the families, cucurbitaceae, solanaceae, and leguminosae ( Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004 ), and it causes an important disease in watermelon ( Jester et al., 2006 ; Wiant, 1940 ). One

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greenhouse, and 2) confirm that the MSM rates used in our study inhibit emergence of a weed (Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri ) and growth of a soilborne pathogen ( Phytophthora capsici ) that are common problems during the middle and later phases of

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Despite extensive breeding efforts, no pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) cultivars with universal resistance to phytophthora root rot and foliar blight (Phytophthora capsici Leon) have been commercially released. A reason for this limitation may be that physiological races exist within P. capsici, the causal agent of phytophthora root rot and phytophthora foliar blight. Physiological races are classified by the pathogen's reactions to a set of cultivars (host differential). In this study, 18 varieties of peppers were inoculated with 10 isolates of P. capsici for phytophthora root rot, and four isolates of P. capsici for phytophthora foliar blight. The isolates originated from pepper plants growing in New Mexico, New Jersey, Italy, Korea, and Turkey. For phytophthora root rot, nine of the 10 isolates were identified as different physiological races. The four isolates used in the phytophthora foliar blight study were all determined to be different races. The identification of physiological races within P. capsici has significant implication in breeding for phytophthora root rot and phytophthora foliar blight resistance.

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(Chlorophyll Meter SPAD-502; Minolta Co., Ltd., Ramsey, NJ). Plant diseases. Plants were monitored weekly for presence of Phytophthora blight (caused by Phytophthora capsici ), Southern blight (caused by Sclerotium rolfsii ), and Tomato spotted wilt [caused

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The pathogen Phytophthora capsici Leon. is known to be a limiting factor of chile pepper (Capsicum L.) production around the world. The genetics of the resistance is becoming better understood due to the specific nature of the host-pathogen interaction, i.e., all plant organs are subject to infection. It has been shown that phytophthora root rot resistance and phytophthora foliar blight resistance are under different genetic mechanisms. This study aimed at understanding the inheritance of resistance of phytophthora stem blight and to determine whether phytophthora stem blight was the same disease syndrome as phytophthora root rot and phytophthora foliar blight. Stem cuttings of a segregating F2 population and testcross progeny facilitated the ability to screen for two disease syndromes concurrently. When the three disease syndromes were compared separately, the F2 populations fit a 3 resistant (R): 1 susceptible (S) ratio and the testcross progenies fit a 1R:1S ratio. When comparative studies were performed (stem vs. foliar and stem vs. root), the F2 populations fit a 9R/R:3R/S:3S/R:1S/S ratio and the testcross fit a 1R/R:1R/S:1S/R:1S/S ratio. These ratios are consistent of a single gene controlling the resistance of each system. Therefore, phytophthora stem blight, root rot, and foliar blight are three separate disease syndromes.

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Abstract

The 4 hot peppers from India ‘Pant C-1’, ‘KAU Cluster’ (Capsicum annuum L.), ‘White Khandari’, and ‘Chuna’ (C. frutescens L.) were evaluated along with 6 United States cultivars for their reaction to Pseudomonas solanacearum E.F. Smith (races 1 and 2), Phytophthora capsici Leonian, and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood. The Indian ‘Pant C-1’ was resistant to 4 Pseudomonas solanacearum isolates and moderately resistant to Phytophthora root rot and root-knot nematode. The breeding line ‘White Khandari’ was resistant to 3 isolates of the bacterium and root-knot nematode and moderately resistant to Phytophthora root rot. These Indian pepper lines could be an additional source in multiple disease-resistant breeding programs. Multiple disease resistance and good horticultural characteristics make ‘Pant C-1’ an excellent source of these resistances.

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