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extended PAR quantum sensor (PQ-612; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT, USA) and spectral distributions with a spectroradiometer (SS-110; Apogee Instruments). Environmental parameters were monitored by third-party sensors as well as internal chamber sensors. We

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), green (G y ), and blue (B z ) percentages (i.e., x , y , and z ) in the WSL and PSL treatments, as measured by a field spectroradiometer (model SS110; Apogee Instruments) at nighttime, were R 35 :G 42 :B 23 and R 90 :G 0 :B 10 , respectively ( Fig. 1

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measurement were obtained from four quadrants (approximately the middle of each quadrant) of each tree. PAR was measured with a MQ-301 light meter (Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT, USA), as described by Singh et al. (2022) . For each tree, a PAR measurement was

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line quantum sensors (400 to 700 nm) connected to an Apogee Nanologger (Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT). Non-inductive photoperiods were provided with a 1000-W enhanced spectrum metal halide bulb (AgroSun Bulbs Hydrofarm, Petaluma, CA) that delivered 0

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relative humidity of 70% ± 5%. The PPF was measured weekly with an Apogee LQS-QM Quantum meter (Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) at the top of the plant canopy (≈20 cm above the plants). PPF averaged 600 ± 25 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 and was provided by 400-W

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. Trees were arranged in a complete randomized design to minimize any potential differences in lighting intensity. The integrated daily photon flux density (measured with multiple replicate full-spectrum quantum sensors, model SQ-500; Apogee Instruments

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). Weather sensors installed include an anemometer (003001; R.M. Young, Traverse City, MI), a tipping bucket rain gauge (TE525, Campbell Scientific), a temperature/relative humidity probe (HMP50, Campbell Scientific), and a pyranometer (CS300; Apogee

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-covered greenhouse in Athens, GA, from 21 Oct. to 20 Dec. 2013. Greenhouse environmental conditions were measured using a quantum sensor for photosynthetic photon flux ( PPF ) (SQ-110; Apogee Instruments, Logan, UT) and a temperature and relative humidity sensor (HMP

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sensor four times at 90° (the base point directly facing the lamp) and dividing by two ( Frantz et al., 1998 ). The output of supplemental PPF was calibrated to be equivalent for both treatments using a line quantum meter (MQ-303; Apogee Instruments

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prohexadione–calcium on flowering of whole trees. The second study assessed the effect of P-Ca (Apogee ® ) on pistillate flower production. It was initiated when ≈25-year-old AB ‘Pawnee’ trees were in a moderate “on” year (≈60% terminals fruiting), thus

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