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Lisa W. DeVetter, Huan Zhang, Shuresh Ghimire, Sean Watkinson and Carol A. Miles

day-neutral strawberry grown in an annual system in western Washington. Mulch performance, including deterioration and weed suppression ability, as well as impacts on plant growth, yield, and fruit quality were measured to assess mulch performance and

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Suzanne P. Stone, George E. Boyhan and W. Carroll Johnson III

, J.D. 2016 Weed suppression in pumpkin by mulches composed of organic municipal waste materials HortScience 51 720 726 Terry, E.R. Stall, W.M. Shilling, D.G. Bewick, T.A. Kostewicz, S.R. 1997 Smooth amaranth interference with watermelon and muskmelon

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Nicole Burkhard, Derek Lynch, David Percival and Mehdi Sharifi

composts from 1 year to the next. Both composts, MC and SC, were successful at suppressing some dominant perennial weeds (namely sheep sorrel). The major factor that influenced weed suppression by the compost mulches for certain weed species was likely

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Jenny C. Moore and Annette L. Wszelaki

pepper fruit among five different BDMs compared with PE mulch, paper mulch, and bare ground treatments and 2) measure the durability and effectiveness of these mulches for weed suppression over the growing season compared with a hand-weeded bare ground

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Rahmatallah Gheshm and Rebecca Nelson Brown

objective of this study was to determine how using compost as an organic mulch for weed suppression affected yields of romaine lettuce cultivars grown in the late fall and early spring when below-optimal soil temperatures could limit lettuce growth. We chose

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Thomas Björkman

Buckwheat has historically been used to suppress weeds and improve soil condition, but many of the tricks to success have been lost to history. Buckwheat is inexpensive and particularly effective in short windows between crops. We are documenting the techniques of existing experts and complementing that with research. We surveyed northeastern vegetable and strawberry growers to identify what information they need in order to feel confident that they could succeed with a buckwheat cover crop. Top questions include seed availability, types of weeds controlled, relation to other cover crops, volunteer management, and herbicide tolerance. One question tested experimentally was how to establish a full stand with minimum cost. We tested the minimum tillage requirement following pea harvest. No-till resulted in good emergence but slow growth, and dominance by weeds. Disk incorporating the pea residue resulted in excellent growth, which was not further enhanced by chisel plowing before disking. Buckwheat seedlings are intolerant of waterlogging, so deeper tillage may be important in wet years. Sowing buckwheat immediately after tillage resulted in emergence of 35%, leaving gaps large enough for weeds to grow. Waiting 1 week gave an 80% stand and complete weed suppression. Waiting 2 weeks also gave an 80% stand, but weed growth was advanced enough that weed suppression was incomplete. Therefore, a buckwheat cover crop following early vegetables requires light tillage to permit root growth, and up to a week of decomposition. If those provisions are made, complete weed suppression is obtainable.

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Bruce P. Bordelon and Stephen C. Weller

Use of in-row cover crops for weed management in first-year vineyards was investigated in two studies. In the first study, rye (Secale cereal L. 'Wheeler') was fall-planted, overwintered, then managed by three methods before vine planting. Rye was either herbicide-desiccated with glyphosate and left on the surface as a mulch, mowed, or incorporated into the soil (cultivated). Weed density and growth of grapevines (Vitis spp.) were evaluated. Herbicide desiccation was superior to the other methods for weed suppression, with weed densities 3 to 8 times lower than for mowed or cultivated plots. Vine growth was similar among treatments, but the trend was for more shoot growth with lower weed density. In a second study, four cover crops, rye, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Cardinal'), oats (Avena sativa L. 'Ogle'), and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), were compared. Wheat and rye were fall- and spring-planted, and oats and vetch were spring-planted, then desiccated with herbicides (glyphosate or sethoxydim) after vine planting and compared to weed-free and weedy control plots for weed suppression and grapevine growth. Cover crops provided 27% to 95% reduction in weed biomass compared to weedy control plots. Total vine dry mass was highest in weed-free control plots, was reduced 54% to 77% in the cover crop plots, and was reduced 81% in the weedy control. Fall-planted wheat and rye and spring-planted rye plots produced the highest vine dry mass among cover crop treatments. Spring-planted rye provided the best combination of weed suppression and vine growth. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate isopropylamine salt); 2-[l-(ethoxyimino)butyl]5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim).

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Braja B. Datta and Ray D William

Fall-planted cover crops killed in spring is practiced in strawberry cultivation in different regions of the North America. These systems have shown significant weed suppression and conservation of soil without significant yield reduction in strawberry. During the establishment season, this study was initiated to assess weed suppression with cover crops (`Wheeler' rye and `Micah' and `Steptoe' barley) along with perlite, an artificial plant medium. Strawberry (`Selva' and `Totem') plant growth and weed biomass were measured during 1995-96 season. Small-seeded summer annual weeds were suppressed in cover crop treatments compared to control treatment. `Micah' barley in growth phase suppressed more than 81% of the total weed biomass compared to control plots with no cover crop in early spring. However, in early summer, cover crop residues failed to suppress different types of weeds 60 days after killing of cereal with herbicide (2% glyphosate). Distinct differences in strawberry plant growth were evident between the cover crop treatments and non-cover crop treatments including `Micah' applied on surface. Strawberry growth was doubled during 10 July to 15 Aug. in both cultivars. `Micah' barley applied on surface produced better growth in both strawberry varieties than the growth in other treatments. `Micah' barley applied on soil surface produced 50% more strawberry shoot biomass may indicate the root competition between cover crops and strawberry.

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Nancy G. Creamer and Mark. A. Bennett

A mixture of rye, hairy vetch, barley, and crimson clover was seeded on raised beds at two locations in Ohio in August, 1992. The following May, the mixture was killed with an undercutter and left on the surface as a mulch. Processing tomatoes (OH 8245) were planted into the killed cover crop mulch immediately following undercutting. Four systems of production were evaluated including: conventional (without cover crop mulch), integrated (with reduced chemical input), organic, and no additional input. At the Columbus site, above ground biomass (AGB) was 9,465 kg ha-1 with 207 kg ha-1 N in to AGB. In Fremont, the AGB was 14,087 kg ha-1 with 382 kg ha-1 N in the AGB. Annual weeds were suppressed by the killed cover crop mulch, and no additional weed control for the annual weeds was necessary. Weed suppression by the mulch was equivalent to weed suppression by the herbicides used in the conventional system. Other data that will be reported include soil moistures and temperatures; impact on insects end diseases; and, tomato growth, development, and yield.

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Martin F. Quigley

Six durable but slow-to-establish groundcover species, and three fast-growing but short-lived groundcover species, were planted singly and in paired combinations under mature landscape trees to test for relative weed suppression. Installations were replicated on an urban site and a rural site, monitored for two growing seasons, and weeded periodically by hand. All weeds were dried and weighed, and subplot averages (160 observations) for each plant combination were tested by analysis of variance. Weeds were significantly fewer and smaller in the mixed species than in single species subplots. Weed biomass was also significantly less in monospecific groundcover subplots than in unplanted control plots. These results suggest that reduced maintenance cost (and input) for weed control, along with better initial coverage appeal of the paired plantings, may increase marketability of perennial groundcovers.