cultivation, leading to numerous studies to find other effective weedcontrol strategies. ( Bangarwa et al., 2012 ; Guo et al., 2017 ; Muramoto et al., 2008 ; Shrestha et al., 2018 ). In polyethylene-mulched vegetable production, herbicides provide some
ornamental production. The objective of this study was to evaluate crop safety and weedcontrol with pre-transplant applications of these fumigants on seven ornamental species. Materials and methods The experiment was conducted at a commercial nursery in
). Thus, nonchemical (mainly mulches) and integrated weedcontrol method (herbicide + mulches) need to be further evaluated ( Yu and Marble, 2022 ).
In recent years, researchers have again been exploring using nonchemical or integrated weedcontrol
Organic production systems rely heavily on cultural and mechanical weedcontrol, with minimal dependence on herbicides that are approved for use in certified organic crops. Herbicides allowed for use in certified organic production systems are
). With medium-scale to large-scale production, plastic mulch adds significantly to the production cost for the farmer; therefore, it is essential to identify the herbicide options for weedcontrol when the grower is unable to afford the additional cost
, 2005 ; Ngouajio and McGiffen, 2004 ). Currently, polyethylene (plastic) film-mulches are the primary mulch used in vegetable production for in-row weedcontrol; however, weedcontrol between rows can be a significant challenge for some producers. Weeds
Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum postemergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of pelargonic acid concentration, adjuvants, and application timing on weed control efficacy as a burn-down herbicide. Field research was conducted at Lane, Okla. (southeast Oklahoma), during the 2005 growing season. One month prior to spraying the weed control treatments, the land was cultivated to kill the existing weeds and provide a uniform seed bed for new weed growth. The factorial weed control treatments included three application concentrations of Scythe (57.0% pelargonic acid) applied at 3%, 6.5%, and 10%; three adjuvants (none, orange oil, and non-ionic surfactant); and two application dates. All herbicide treatments were applied with an application volume of 935 L/ha to seedling weeds. The experiment had a high weed density with multiple species of grass and broadleaf weeds. Weed control across species increased as the herbicide concentrations increased from 0% to 10%. At all concentrations applied, pelargonic acid produced greater weed control for a longer time period for the broadleaf weeds than the grass weeds. Visual damage to the weeds was often apparent within a few hours after application. There was a significant increase in weed control when applied to the younger weeds. In this research, pelargonic acid was effective in controlling both broadleaf and grass weeds as a burn-down herbicide, although crabgrass was tougher to control.
The control of annual weeds in young prune orchards increased growth. The degree of foliar expressed phytotoxicity did not result in decreased tree growth. Simazine gave long lasting weed control and the most foliar symptoms on prunes, but superior tree growth. Simazine and dichlobenil produced more foliar symptoms than diphenamid, but less indication of growth reduction.
Lack of effective weed control is the major limiting factor in strawberry production. With few herbicides labeled for use in this perennial crop, weeds are controlled using manual labor, cultivation, and one or two herbicide applications. However, these practices do not provide long-term, effective weed control, and weeds continue to be the number one reason why strawberry fields are removed from production due to a reduction in yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate weed control during strawberry plant establishment using woven woolen mats and spring-sown canola. The effects of these mulches on weed control and strawberry plant production were studied independently and in tandem. Weed and daughter plant counts were compared among treatments to test for differences. Wool mulch, both single- and two-ply, was an effective barrier to weeds within the strawberry rows. Planting canola between rows or broadcasting in combination with the wool mulch decreased the number of weeds when compared to other treatments. The four treatments that included wool had the highest number of rooted daughter plants when compared to all the other treatments except the weed-free plot. The canola treatments without wool mulch did not produce as many rooted daughter plants and were not statistically different from the weedy-check.
Studies were conducted to evaluate metolachlor for weed control and crop tolerance in sweet potatoes. Metolachlor was applied posttransplant at rates of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 lb/A. Tank-mix combinations of metolachlor + clomazone were also evaluated. Clomazone was the standard herbicide used for comparison. Metolachlor alone or in combination with clomazone did not cause any serious reduction in sweet potato plant vigor when applied posttransplant. Metolachlor provided excellent control of Brachiaria platyphylla, Cyperus iria, Cyperus esculentus, and Amaranthus hybridus. Tank-mixes with clomazone did not improve the weed control of metolachlor alone. Yields of No. 1 and marketable roots from metolachlor treated plots were equal to or greater than yields from plots treated with clomazone.