Erect-fruited blackberries are often described as having a wild blackberry flavor. Flavor can be greatly affected by sugar and volatile composition, neither of which is known for erect-fruited blackberries. This study was done to characterize changes in sugar and volatile composition in ripening blackberries. Blackberries of `Navaho', `Arapaho', `Shawnee', and `Choctaw' were harvested at red, mottled, shiny, and dull black ripeness stages. Sucrose was found in small amounts (4% to 15%) in all stages of ripeness in all cultivars. Total sugars increased from ≈20–30 to 60–80 mg/g dry weight as fruit ripened from red to dull black. Fructose and glucose maintained a constant 1:1 ratio with ripeness stage and cultivar. Three of the four cultivars had a linear increase in total sugars with ripening; total sugars increased 4% to 40% as fruit ripened from shiny to dull black. Twenty to 25 volatile peaks were found by headspace gas chromatography in ripening blackberries. Six volatiles, tentatively identified as α-pinene, eugenol, limonene, p-cymene, α-terpinol, and gernaylacetone, appeared in all cultivars, but only in ripe (shiny and dull black) fruit. Few volatile peaks were observed in red (unripe) fruit. Data indicate that blackberries continue to increase in sugars in the latter stages of ripeness and that volatiles unique to ripe blackberries are produced during this period.
P. Perkins-Veazie, J.K. Collins, E. Baldwin and Fumi Takeda
S. Wee and R.M. Beaudry
Volatile compounds produced by apple (Malus domestica Borkh) fruit partition into the cuticle and epicuticular waxes and may play an important role in superficial apple scald. Of these volatiles, α-farnesene, conjugated trienes, hydroperoxides, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one have been identified as playing a crucial role in scald production. Volatiles from the epicuticular wax of four different apple cultivars have been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. A correlation was found between scald incidence and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one content and the 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one:α-farnesene ratio. α-Farnesene is the most-abundant volatile at the beginning of storage, whereas 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one is present in minute quantities. These two volatile compounds appear to have an inverse relationship with respect to one another since the levels of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one increased and α-farnesene decreased prior to the onset of apple scald. This changing ratio may have been due to an autoxidative process resulting in the breakdown of α-farnesene to 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Analysis of the volatiles emanating from the apple wax revealed a number of compounds associated with aroma that also partition readily into the fruit surface.
Douglas D. Archbold, Thomas R. Hamilton-Kemp and John H. Loughrin
Volatile compounds, commonly produced by flowers during bloom, have been described as insect attractants. Some of these compounds stimulate Pinus pollen germination in vitro (French et al., 1979, J. Agric. Fd. Chem., 27184-187), suggesting that such compounds may do the same in vivo. Red Delicious apple pollen was germinated on agar in a simple, enclosed in vitro bioassay system in the presence of a number of plant tissues, including apple, tomato, and chrysanthemum leaves, apple flowers, rose petals, and apple fruit slices. These tissues represent a diversity of types of volatile compounds, Pollen germination was recorded by microphotography after 1 and 2 hours, and percent germination was determined. Although stimulation of germination was not observed, macerated tomato leaves inhibited it. To determine if the volatile characteristics of cultivars differ, flowers of Red Delicious and Golden Delicious apple were harvested at full bloom. Their volatiles were collected, identified, and quantitated by capillary GC-MS. Among 8 major compounds common in the two cultivars, several quantitative differences were observed. These results will be discussed in relation to the potential role of volatiles in pollen germination.
Philip Busey, Timothy K. Broschat and Diane L. Johnston
Phenoxy and related herbicides used in turfgrass have the potential for volatilization and movement from treated areas. Three studies assessed potential injury to subtropical landscape plants caused by volatile turf herbicides in polyethylene enclosures. Phenoxy herbicide mixtures were emphasized. There were significant differences among the seven landscape species tested. The most sensitive species were african marigold (Tagetes erecta), joseph's coat (Alternanthera ficoidea), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Severe injury was caused by exposure to herbicides containing 2,4-D isooctyl ester and MCPA isooctyl ester. Exposure to individual active ingredients 2,4-D dimethylamine, dicamba acid, atrazine, and metsulfuron resulted in no injury to the species tested.
Celso L. Moretti, Elizabeth A. Baldwin, Steven A. Sargent and Donald J. Huber
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit, cv. Solar Set, were harvested at the mature-green stage and treated with 50 μL·L-1 ethylene at 20 °C. Individual fruits at the breaker stage (<10% red color) were dropped onto a solid surface to induce internal bruising. Dropped and undropped fruit were stored at 20 °C until red-ripe, at which time pericarp, placental, and locule tissues were excised. Tissues from dropped tomatoes were examined for evidence of internal bruising and all tissues were analyzed for selected volatile profiles via headspace analysis. Individual volatile profiles of the three tissues in bruised fruit were significantly different from those of corresponding tissues in undropped, control fruit, notably: trans-2-hexenal from pericarp tissue; 1-penten-3-one, cis-3-hexenal, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, cis-3-hexenol and 2-isobutylthiazole from locule tissue; and 1-penten-3-one and β-ionone from placental tissue. Alteration of volatile profiles was most pronounced in the locule tissue, which was more sensitive to internal bruising than the other tissues. Changes observed in the volatile profiles appear to be related to disruption of cellular structures.
Robert C. Ebel, James P. Mattheis and David A. Buchanan
Potted apple trees were severely (S) or moderately (M) droughted and compared to a well-watered control (C) to determine changes in biogenesis of leaf volatile compounds. Total available water (TAW) of the soil was allowed to decline to near 0% TAW, 20% TAW, and 100% TAW, for S, M and C, respectively, by the end of a two-week drying period. Twenty-nine volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS using headspace sampling of detached leaves. Concentrations of (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, l-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and hexyl acetate were 5 to 310 times higher for S than C. It is suggested that the large drought induced increase in C-6 compounds was related to enhanced lipoxygenase activity.
J.P. Mattheis, D.A. Buchanan and J.K. Fellman
Enclosing apple fruit in bags during development is widely practiced in Japan. Bags create a barrier that reduces damage from insects and fungal pathogens as well as treatments to control these problems. Bags also reduce the incidence of sunburn and change fruit appearance by altering peel pigmentation composition, two features that have prompted northwestern United States producers to bag `Fuji' apples. Fruit maturity and quality of bagged and nonbagged Fuji apples grown in Washington state were evaluated at harvest and after refrigerated storage in air or controlled atmosphere. Bagged fruit had less watercore and lower ethylene production at harvest compared to non-bagged fruit with similar starch ratings. Bagged fruit had lower soluble solids content, titratable acidity and firmness at harvest and during storage. Emission of ester and alcohol volatiles was consistently lower for bagged fruit. Postharvest volatile emissions were negatively correlated with bagging duration during development. Bagged fruit had no incidence of a peel disorder with similarity to delayed sunscald.
Stanley J. Kays, Jason Hatch and Dong Sik Yang
Selection emphasis on cyme size and flower color of Heliotropium arborescens L. has led to cultivars with diminished floral fragrance. As a preliminary inquiry into the fragrance chemistry of the species, we identified 41 volatile compounds emanating from the flowers of 'Marine' via isolation (Tenax trapping) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The majority of the volatile compounds emanating from the flowers were terpenes (camphene, p-cymene, δ-3-carene, α-humulene, δ-1-limonene, linalool, (E)-β-ocimene, α-pinene, and β-thujone), benzenoids of which benzaldehyde was the most abundant, aldehydes (decanal, heptanal, nonanal and octanal), and hydrocarbons (decane, heneicosane, heptadecane, hexadecane, nonadecane, nonane, octadecane, tetradecane, tridecane and undecane) along with a cross-section of other compounds. Subsequent identification and quantification of critical ordorants will facilitate selecting new cultivars with quantitative and qualitative improvements in fragrance.
Amots Hetzroni, Denys J. Charles and James E. Simon
A nondestructive electronic sensory system (electronic sniffer) that responds to volatile gases emitted by fruit during ripening was developed. It is based upon a single semi-conductor gas sensor placed within a rigid plastic cup equipped with a gas inlet to flush the head between samples. This gas sensor reacts with the range of reductive gases such as the aromatic volatiles that are naturally emitted by the ripening melon fruit. The sensor cup is placed on the exterior of the fruit and the change in electrical conductivity is recorded. In 1994, we examined the electronic sniffer as a tool to nondestructively determine ripeness in `Superstar', `Mission', and `Makdimon' melons. Fruits were manually classified into five ripeness stages based on external appearance and slip stage. Melons were first sampled nondestructively for color, weight, size, and slip stage, and then subjected to the electronic sniffer. Then, fruit volatiles, flesh firmness, and total soluble solids were measured. The electronic sniffer was able to accurately classify melons into three ripeness classes: unripe, half-ripe, and ripe for `Superstar' and `Mission'. The sniffer was only able to separate ripe from over-ripe in `Makdimon', which is known to become over-ripe and deteriorate rapidly. Using the sniffer as a tool to nondestructively measure ripeness and its potential application in fruit quality will be discussed.
Liangli Yu, Denys J. Charles, Amots Hetzroni and James E. Simon
The volatiles of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatis cv. Mission) were sampled by dichloromethane extraction and dynamic headspace methods and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectroscopy (MS). A total of 34 constituents were identified, with esters contributing 8%–92% of the total volatiles. Butyl propionate, ethyl 3-methylpentanoate, hexadecanoic acid, methyl (methylthio)acetate, propyl butyrate, phenylpropyl alcohol, and vanillin, were recovered only by solvent extraction, while hexanal was only detected using dynamic headspace sampling. Methyl butyrate 35.2%, ethyl acetate 17.1%, butyl acetate 11.6%, ethyl propionate 8.3%, and 3-methylbutyl acetate 6.3% were the major constituents by solvent extraction sampling method. Butyl acetate 35.5%, 3-methylbutyl acetate 20.9%, ethyl acetate 7.3%, 2-butyl acetate 5.6%, and hexyl acetate 3.8% were the major constituents recovered by headspace sampling. Fruit tissue was also separated into five layers (exocarp, outer mesocarp, middle mesocarp, inner mesocarp, and seed cavity) and the volatile constituents differed significantly in content and composition by tissue.