Hexanal vapor inhibited hyphae growth of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) slices. After 48 hours exposure to 4.1 μmol·L-1 (100 ppm) hexanal, the hyphae growth of both fungi was about 50% that of untreated controls. At a concentration of 10.3 μmol·L-1 (250 ppm), neither fungus grew during the treatment period, however, some growth of both fungi occurred 120 hours after treatment. At concentrations of hexanal vapor of 18.6 μmol·L-1 (450 ppm) or more, the growth of both fungi ceased and the organisms were apparently killed, neither showing regrowth when moved to air. When fungi were allowed to germinate and grow for 48 hours in hexanal-free air, a subsequent 48-hour exposure to 10.3 μmol·L-1 hexanal slowed colony growth relative to controls for several days and a 48-hour exposure to 18.6 μmol·L-1 stopped growth completely. Concentrations of hexanal that inhibited fungal growth on PDA also retarded decay lesion development on `Golden Delicious' and on `Jonagold' apple slices. Hexanal was actively converted to aroma volatiles in `Jonagold' and `Golden Delicious' apple slices, with hexanol and hexylacetate production strongly enhanced after 20 to 30 hours treatment. A small amount of butylhexanoate and hexylhexanoate production was also noted. Within 16 hours after treatment, no hexanal could be detected emanating from treated fruit. Since hexanal was metabolized to aroma-related volatiles by the fruit slices, the possibility of hexanal being an essentially residue-less antifungal agent seems likely. The possibility of developing a system for treating apple slices with hexanal in modified-atmosphere packages was also examined. The permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film to hexanal and hexylacetate was, respectively, about 500- and 1000-fold higher than LDPE permeability to O2. The permeability of both compounds increased exponentially with temperature, with hexanal permeability increased 6-fold while hexylacetate increased only 2.5-fold between 0 and 30 °C.
Air heat, methyl jasmonate dip, and vapor treatments with the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (MCP) were used to evaluate their effects on ripening-related characteristics and susceptibility to fungal decay in `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) through 5 months of storage at 0 °C and ripening at 20 °C for 7 days. Preclimacteric fruit were treated with MCP vapor at a concentration of 1 μL•L-1 for 18 h at 20 °C, 38 °C air for 4 days, methyl jasmonate dip at concentrations of 10-5 and 10-4 for 3 min at 20 °C, combinations thereof, or left untreated before storage in air at 0 °C. One set of untreated fruit was stored in a controlled atmosphere of 1.5 O2 and 2.5% CO2 at 0 °C. The MCP treatment and CA storage delayed ripening, as indicated by better retention of green peel color and flesh firmness, and the reduced respiration, ethylene production rates, and volatile (both flavor- and superficial scald-associated) levels that were observed upon transferring the fruit to 20 °C. The MCP treatment followed by air storage delayed ripening more than CA storage. The heat treatment also delayed ripening but hastened skin yellowing. While methyl jasmonate dips had no significant effect on ripening, they were the only treatments used that reduced the incidence of postharvest decay and discolored the surface of some fruit. The results indicate that MCP may provide an effective alternative to CA for maintaining quality during cold storage and ripening. The results also indicate that methyl jasmonate dip treatment may reduce postharvest decay of fruit while maintaining fruit quality.
`Gala' apples [Malus silvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] were treated with ethanol vapor (5 mL·kg-1 fruit for 24 hours at 25 °C), heat (4 days at 38 °C and >98% RH), or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; 1 or 0.625 μL·L-1 for 18 hours at 20 °C) before processing into slices, then dipped in anti-browning solutions or coatings, drained, and packaged in perforated polyethylene bags. Residual effects of pretreatments on fresh-cut slice physiological and quality attributes were investigated during storage for up to 19 days at 5.5 °C. Ethylene production was reduced by ethanol, heat, and 1-MCP pretreatments, while ethanol and heat also reduced slice respiration. Heat and 1-MCP pretreatments inhibited slice texture changes, while ethanol had no effect on instrumental texture measurements but reduced sensory firmness. Ethanol pretreatment increased the contents of ethanol and ethyl esters in slices but reduced acidity, while heat reduced both acidity and aroma volatile levels. Both ethanol and heat pretreatments led to lower sensory scores for apple flavor and ethanol-pretreated slices also received higher scores for altered flavor, although all scores were in the acceptable range. Slice acidity was best maintained by 1-MCP pretreatment. Shelf life based on appearance was 15 to 16 days for ethanol-pretreated slices and 12 days for heat-pretreated slices compared to that of control, which was 8 to 9 days, while 1-MCP pretreatment promoted decay development on the cut surface, which reduced the shelf life to 7 to 8 days. Obvious separations were determined between ethanol- and heat-pretreated slices and untreated control by canonical discriminant analysis of headspace volatile levels determined by GC and electronic nose. Therefore, pretreatments with ethanol and heat are very effective for prolonging visual shelf life at the expense of aroma quality.
Mature green mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit were heated (100% RH) at 50C for 120, 180 or 240 min or 46C for 160, 220 or 280 min. The rate of mesocarp color (CIE a*) development was reduced in treated fruit, particularly in inner tissue. Rate of softening of mesocarp tissue was reduced after heat treatment; inner more than outer. Fruit treated at 50C remained more firm than control fruit 9 days after treatment, whereas fruit treated at 46C were more firm than controls 3 days after treatment, but were similar by 9 days. Electrolyte leakage from inner mesocarp tissue disks increased with increasing time at 50C, but was unchanged in fruit treated at 46C. However, after 3 days, electrolyte leakage returned to control levels. Ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE) activity of inner meso-carp tissue was greatly reduced in fruit treated at 50C (all times), and at 46C (220 and 280 min). After 3 days, EFE activity of fruit from most treatments had recovered to levels higher than controls. These data indicate that fruit may be able to recover from heat stress. Mild heat stress may increase postharvest shelf life by reducing the rate of softening.
Clonal plants of four olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars that originated in cool, moderately hot, and hot climates were examined for their photosynthetic potentials. Within 3 to 4 weeks, plants had fully expanded leaves; by 3 months the apparent photosynthesis, A, increased to a maximum of 5.4 µmol CO2/m2 per sec, while the water use efficiency (WUE) was 2.6 mmol CO2/mol H2O. The mean chloropohyll content was 0.564 mmol/chlorophyll (a + b)/m2. Mean assimilation rate was negatively correlated to leaf area. The values of A were three to four times less than those reported for apple and almond, whereas WUE was 22% greater. A values were proportional to stomatal conductance. Mesophyll resistance was higher than several C3 plants and the optimum temperature for photosynthesis varied among cultivars, seemingly according to the climate where they originated. Stomata opened and closed within 10 min in response to changes in humidity. Gas exchange properties were not affected by peltate removal.
data; a bbott Laboratories (gibberellin), Miller Chemical Co. (Vapor Gard), and Uniroyal (daminozide) for chemical supplies: and to the Virginia State Horticultural Society and a bbott Laboratories for partial financial assistance. The cost of
expanded; RLWC, relative leaf water content; SLW, specific leaf weight; VPD, vapor pressure deficit; WUE, water use efficiency. This is Florida Agricultural Station Series no. R-01055. The cost of puhlishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of
, specific leaf weight; tchl, total chlorophyll; VPD, vapor pressure deficit; WUE, water use efficiency. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Journal Series no. R-O1O54. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges
Abbreviations: A, carbon dioxide assimilation; g s , stomata1 conductance; PFD, photon flux density; RuBPcase, ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase; VPD, vapor-pressure deficit; WUE, water use efficiency. 1 Visiting Research Associate, Plant Research
Abbreviations: ET, evapotranspiration; ψ, water potential; VPD, vapor pressure deficit. 1 UC Cooperative Extension, 733 County Center III Court, Modesto, CA 95355. This work supported in part by a grant from the California Prune Board. The cost of