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Cascasan 2018; Marler and Cruz 2020 ). The oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose were quantified by HPLC mass spectrometry (Agilent 1290 HPLC, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The concentration of each of the 16 NSCs was compared for the two cycad species by t

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concentrations ( Livingston, 1996 ; Patton et al., 2007a , 2007b ). Compounds such as proline, simple sugars, certain proteins, and oligosaccharides such as raffinose and fructan ( Alden and Hermann, 1971 ) are osmolites with cryoprotective properties. Proline

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on most dates ( Fig. 6D ). JG did not differ from UC and GM on most sampling dates. Sucrose levels of rhizomes were three to five times those in storage roots in both years. Raffinose. In 2012, rhizome raffinose concentrations decreased from the first

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appears to be controlled by the metabolism of carbohydrates in the fruit sink itself ( Hubbard et al., 1989 ; Lester et al., 2001 , Schaffer et al., 1996 , 2000 ). Sucrose and the galactosyl–sucrose oligosaccharides, raffinose and stachyose, are

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in between subsequent harvests. Table 1. Water-soluble nonstructural carbohydrates accumulation by African and exotic leafy vegetables across different weeks after transplanting (WAT). Exceptionally, raffinose, a sugar alcohol was only detected for

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., 2012 ; Marquat et al., 1999 ). A pivotal paper ( Marquat et al., 1999 ) showed that the sucrose stored in buds of peach ( Prunus persica ) was used during dormancy release to synthesize the sorbitol and raffinose that are required for bud burst

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, galactose, glucose, mannose, maltose, trehalose, sucrose, and raffinose), organic acids (shikimic acid, malic acid, quinic acid, citric acid, salicylic acid, and succinic acid), polyols (arabitol, myoinositol, mannitol, and xylitol), and mineral nutrients (P

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, raffinose, kestose, galactose, etc.) during seasonal acclimation and deacclimation ( Pagter et al., 2008 , 2011 ). In all these studies, loss of TSS was positively correlated with deacclimation. Our data reinforce previous observations and indicate a

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. Matile, P. Keller, F. 1994 Metabolism of raffinose family oligosaccharides in leaves of Ajuga reptans L Plant Physiol. 105 1335 1345 Chatterton, N.J. Harrison, P.A. Bennet, J.H. Asay, K

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between the ratio of sucrose/raffinose family oligosaccharides and seed vigour in Medicago truncatula Plant Cell Environ. 34 1473 1487 Vázquez-Torres, M. Sánchez-Tinoco, M.Y. Alejandre-Rosas, J.A. 1989 Algunos datos etnobotánicos sobre las Zamiaceae

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