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irrigation during a rain event and, as a result, may remain dry for a period of weeks until the next rain event regardless of soil type. Native plants adapted to low wetland areas are desirable for rain gardens because they are low maintenance, not invasive

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Six grass species representing vegetative and seeded types of native, warm-season and cool-season grasses, and pennsylvania sedge (Carex pensylvanica) were evaluated in the greenhouse for resistance to root-feeding grubs of european chafer (Rhizotrogus majalis). Potted bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchlöe dactyloides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), and pennsylvania sedge grown in a greenhouse were infested at the root zone with 84 grubs per 0.1 m2 or 182 grubs per 0.1 m2. The effects on plant growth, root loss, survival, and weight gain of grubs were determined. Survival rates were similar for low and high grub densities. With comparable densities of grubs, root loss tended to be proportionately less in zoysiagrass and bermudagrass than in other species. European chafer grubs caused greater root loss at higher densities. Grub weight gain and percentage recovery decreased with increasing grub density, suggesting a food limitation even though root systems were not completely devoured. Bermudagrass root weight showed greater tolerance to european chafer grubs; another mechanism is likely involved for zoysiagrass. Variation in susceptibility of plant species to european chafer suggests that differences in the ability of the plants to withstand grub feeding damage may be amenable to improvement by plant selection and breeding.

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Germination of purple sage [Salvia dorrii (Kellogg) Abrams] seed was evaluated under 21 temperature combinations (day temperatures from 5 to 30C and night temperatures from 5 to 30C) in two experiments: 1) cool-moist stratification; and 2) sandpaper scarification, leaching with water, or gibberellic acid (GA3). The quadratic responses of weighted germination percentage (WGP), a combined index of germination percentage and speed of germination, were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for all treatments. The interaction of day and night temperatures was significant (P ≤ 0.05) only for the 2-week stratification treatments and for the Expt. 2 control. Stratification increased WGP over the control. Optimal WGP for all stratification treatments ranged from 46% to 51%. Optimal WGP was the same for both GA3 treatments. Optimal WGP for 0.29 mmol GA3 occurred at 16C night temperature and 22C day temperature, and for the 1.44 mmol GA3 treatment at 18C night and at 30C day temperature.

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each other that allows for gene exchange) of native/exotic species allowing for intraspecific (within) and interspecific (among species) hybridization [hybridization-invasion hypothesis ( Gaskin, 2017 )] and the involvement of horticulture and agronomy

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fulfillment of the requirements for a MS degree in horticulture. Our thanks to the Minnesota Native Wildflower/Grass Producers Assn., the Minnesota Dept. of Agriculture, and to Arboretum volunteers Jo Nielsen, Kathryn McFadden, and Sue Tracey.

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Juneberry is native to the Northwest Territories, the southern Yukon, the Canadian Prairie Provinces, and the northern plains of the United States ( Mazza and Davidson, 1993 ). Juneberry is a shrub in the Rosaceae family with a sweet edible pome

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. Several native grass species also show potential for low-maintenance turfgrass areas. Mintenko et al. (2002) evaluated 12 species of native grasses adapted to the northern Great Plains for 4 years at Winnipeg and Carmen, MB, Canada, and found blue grama

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farmers tend to still be the same crops grown by the large corporations, just on a smaller scale. Most of this produce is not native to where it is being grown. A native or indigenous species is one that occurs in a particular place without the help of

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available through a lightweight, mobile device, particularly via a native app (an app that does not require Internet access but rather runs on the mobile device’s operating system and machine firmware) can be an extremely valuable tool. Mobile device apps

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species management plans. In 1997, a plan to eradicate the american grey squirrel ( Sciurus carolinensis ), an introduced nonnative species rapidly replacing Italy’s native red squirrel ( Sciurus vulgaris ) and damaging trees throughout the region, was

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