A greenhouse screen for resistance to green peach aphid (GPA) [Myzus persicae (Sulzer)] was done using 50 pepper (Capsicum spp.) accessions. There were significant differences among accessions for damage rating, number of aphids per plant and number of aphids per leaf. Leaf pubescence, the basis of a reported nonpreference resistance mechanism to green peach aphid infestation, failed to protect pepper accessions from GPA colonization and damage. Sources of resistance and tolerance to cotton aphid [Aphis gossypi (Glover)] supported high levels of green peach aphid infestation and exhibited considerable damage. Although no accessions provided strong resistance to aphid colonization evident by significantly reduced numbers of aphids, several commercial varieties and sources of virus resistance exhibited strong tolerance to GPA, evident as reduced damage. Tolerant varieties could be an important component in integrated pest management of green peach aphid.
James D. Frantz, Jeffrey Gardner, Michael P. Hoffmann and Molly M. Jahn
Douglas L. Airhart, Kathleen M. Airhart and John Tristan
Managers of greenhouses used in vocational training or therapeutic programs often face pesticide use restrictions due to medical safety codes, possible sensitivity due to client medications, frequent presence of patient groups, or the added risk of exposure to clients with limited awareness. This review of three horticultural therapy programs emphasizes the practice of preventive measures, manual controls, and limited chemical methods to discourage pest problems and outlines pest control strategies that may not be feasible in commercial greenhouses. The importance and application of integrated pest management and biological pest controls are discussed. Procedures and client activities for sanitation, cultural controls, pest monitoring, and safe application of spray solutions are presented. Client work habits and skills may be developed using the tasks suggested for pest control, and various skill competency levels may be incorporated into the management scheme. The need for client training and task accomplishment may encourage alternative labor-intensive pest-control methods in therapeutic greenhouses.
Harry Bottenberg, John Masiunas, Catherine Eastman and Darin Eastburn
provided by Don Elliott, Jim Poppe, Doyle Dazey, and Kyle Krapf. We thank Asgrow Seed Company for donating the snapbean seed. Funding was provided by the Pesticide Impact Assessment and the Integrated Pest Management Programs, North Central Region.
Kristian E. Holmstrom, Marilyn G. Hughes, Wesley L. Kline, Sarah D. Walker and Joseph Ingerson-Mahar
In 1998, Rutgers Cooperative Extension (RCE) and the Grant F. Walton Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis (CRSSA) at Rutgers University began a joint program to use global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) technologies to map the spatial distribution of corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)) and European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae)). In 1999 the Rutgers Cooperative Extension Vegetable Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program operated a network of 81 blacklight insect survey traps in New Jersey. These 15 W blacklight traps were used to monitor adult populations of vegetable crop pests including corn earworm and European corn borer. All blacklight trap sites were mapped using a hand held GPS unit. Average daily corn borer population data were imported into a GIS software package, and then linked to corresponding mapped locations throughout New Jersey. State wide spatial distributions of adult corn earworm and European corn borer population data were imported into a GIS software package, and then linked to corresponding mapped locations throughout New Jersey. State wide spatial distributions of adult corn earworm and European corn borer populations were produced weekly, and distributed via extension newsletters and web sites to augment the current RCE IPM outreach program.
William E. Klingeman, David B. Eastwood, John R. Brooker, Charles R. Hall, Bridget K. Behe and Patricia R. Knight
A survey was administered to assess plant characteristics that consumers consider important when selecting landscape plants for purchase. Visitors to home and garden shows in Knoxville and Nashville, Tenn.; Detroit, Mich.; and Jackson, Miss., completed 610 questionnaires. Respondents also indicated their familiarity with integrated pest management (IPM) concepts, pest control philosophy, recognition of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) pests and diseases, including dogwood powdery mildew (Microsphaera pulchra), and willingness-to-pay a price differential for a powdery-mildew-resistant flowering dogwood. Fewer than half of the respondents in any city indicated familiarity with IPM, although they were familiar with organic farming and pest scouting components of an IPM program. Willingness-to-pay was relatively consistent across all four locations. The uniformity of average tree premiums, which ranged from $11.87 in Jackson to $16.38 in Detroit, supports the proposition that customers are willing to pay a substantially higher price for a landscape tree that will maintain a healthier appearance without the use of chemical sprays. Factors affecting consumer demand for landscape nursery products and services can be paired with consumer awareness of IPM terminology and practices to create an effective market strategy for newly developed powdery-mildew-resistant dogwood cultivars.
John Speese III and S.B. Sterrett
The effect of crop rotation was investigated on the efficacy and the economics of various insecticide strategies for Colorado potato beetle (CPB) control in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in 1995-96. These included broad-spectrum insecticides and biorational (environmentally friendly, naturally occurring) combinations that targeted specific CPB life stages. CPB pressure was greater in the nonrotated than the rotated plots. Although all materials gave better CPB control than the check, significantly more spray applications were required to reduce CPB numbers below treatment thresholds in the nonrotated plots than the rotated plots in both years. Overall yields and economic returns were significantly greater in the rotated plots in 1995. Efficacy of insecticide strategies varied, with little defoliation and few CPB larvae found in the imidacloprid treatment in 1995 and 1996. All insecticide strategies except endosulfan resulted in significantly higher estimated returns to management than the untreated check; the greatest returns occurred with permethrin and cryolite. No yields or returns could be obtained in 1996 due to excessive rainfall before harvest. These results indicate that yield and the cost of the insecticide strategy should be considered as well as insecticide efficacy in developing an effective integrated pest management program.
Ian A Merwin and John A. Ray
1 Associate Professor. 2 Research Technician. Cornell Univ. Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science Paper No. 61. This research was funded in part by USDA—CSRS Hatch Act Project NY(C)-14209, and the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program
Joseph H. Connell
Almond, [Prunus dulcis (synonym Prunus amygdalus)] planted on approximately 595,000 acres (240,797 ha), is California's largest acreage tree crop. California's Central Valley accounts for nearly 100% of the U.S. domestic production of almonds. Integrated pest management (IPM) programs that integrate cultural practices and pest and disease monitoring with selective controls have improved plant protection in almond. Methods of orchard floor management and their effects must also be taken into account. Minimizing dust reduces mites while harvesting earlier and the destruction of overwintering refugia are cultural practices that reduce worm damage. Improved methods for field sampling and monitoring have reduced the need for pesticide applications while improving timing and effectiveness of needed crop protection sprays. Selective controls have further reduced the impact on nontarget species. Augmentative parasite releases have also helped manage navel orangeworm (Ameylois transitella). Effective use of new selective fungicides will require precise application timing and greater knowledge of diseases and resistance management. A better understanding of disease life cycles leading to improved monitoring of the fungal diseases, shothole (Wilsonomyces carpophilus), almond scab (Cladosporium carpophilum), and anthracnose (Colletotrichum acutatum) have reduced fungicide applications. Future challenges include the potential loss of effective pest control products, the need to continually develop improved utilization strategies, and maintaining economic sustainability.
Sujatha Sankula, Mark J. VanGessel, Walter E. Kee Jr., C. Edward Beste and Kathryne L. Everts
1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org This research was made possible by financial support from Northeastern Integrated Pest Management Grants Program. The authors thank
William H. Olson and Richard P. Buchner
English walnut (Juglans regia) producers in California compete with many insect and disease pests to produce an acceptable crop. Traditional control strategies work reasonably well for most pests. However, environmental concerns, loss of certain pesticides and new or impending regulations threaten the use of many traditional techniques for control of many of the pests. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella), walnut husk fly (Rhagoletis completa), and walnut aphid (Chromaphis juglandicola) are the major insects that affect California walnut production. Control strategies that use integrated pest management programs, beneficial insects, mating disruption, insect growth regulators, improved monitoring techniques and precise treatment timing based on the insect's life cycle are leading edge techniques currently available for insect control in walnuts. Major diseases include walnut blight (Xanthomonas campestris pv. juglandis), crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and crown and root rot (Phytophthora spp). Both copper resistant and copper sensitive strains of the walnut blight bacterium are best controlled with combinations of copper bactericides and maneb instead of copper materials alone. A new computer model, Xanthocast, used to forecast the need for walnut blight treatment is under evaluation. Crown gall is managed using a preplant biological control agent and a heat treatment to eradicate existing galls. Phytophthora crown and root rot is dealt with primarily by site selection, irrigation management and rootstock selection.