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Tiffany L. Law and Gregory A. Lang

High-density tree training systems are important for overcoming some of the challenges of sweet cherry ( P. avium L.) production. Cherry fruit are susceptible to many pests and diseases, rain-induced cracking, and bird damage, requiring multiple

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Luis Rallo

planted with 70–100 trees/ha. After World War II, rural migration increased production costs, and mechanical harvesting became compulsory. Since then, these plantations have begun to be replaced by high-density mechanically harvested orchards. Rain

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Michael J. Havey and Farhad Ghavami

; Duangjit et al., 2013 ). In this study, we genotyped 1692 of these SNPs using a high-density array and DNAs from random plants from A. vavilovii and 14 open-pollinated (OP) onion populations to determine how commonly polymorphisms exist in cultivated

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Lorenzo León, Raúl de la Rosa, Diego Barranco and Luis Rallo

related to this parameter should be considered only as preliminary. The four selections mentioned earlier, ‘UC-I 11-16’, ‘UC-I 8-7’, ‘UC-I 6-9’, and ‘UC-I 7-8’, showed high productivity and low vigor, and could be particularly interesting for high-density

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Lance V. Stott, Brent Black and Bruce Bugbee

that is 65% to 80% of a Mazzard ( Lang, 2000 ). G.3 produces a tree slightly smaller than a G.5 ( Franken-Bembenek, 2004 ; Kappel and Lang, 2008 ; Roper et al., 2019 ). These rootstocks are well-suited for high-density cherry production for both sweet

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Don C. Elfving and Dwayne B. Visser

1985b Stimulation of lateral branch development in tree fruit nursery stock with GA 4+7 + BA HortScience 20 758 759 Cook, N.C. Strydom, D.K. 2000 The South African high density system Acta Hort. 513 321

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Gerry H. Neilsen, Denise Neilsen, Peter Toivonen and Linda Herbert

kg·ha −1 ) and K (≈200 kg·ha −1 ) requirements ( Neilsen and Neilsen, 2003 ). Few nutrient estimates are available for high-density plantings, which can approach 4000 trees/ha for ‘super spindle’. More recently, several conditions have been

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Robert R. Shortell, William A. Meyer and Stacy A. Bonos

Significant differences between types were observed for all morphological measurements except flag leaf length and width in both years of the study ( Table 2 ). Measurements in both 2004 and 2005, under spaced-plant conditions, indicated that the High Density

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Eddo Rugini, Cristian Silvestri, Marilena Ceccarelli, Rosario Muleo and Valerio Cristofori

to introduce intensive or superintensive orchards, or adopt new training systems ( Connors et al., 2014 ; Freixa et al., 2011 ). In several countries, there has been a rapid increase of high-density olive cultivation regarding a limited number of

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Richard P. Marini and Donald S. Sowers

`Norman' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees were trained to the central-leader or open-vase form and were planted at high (740 trees/ha), or low (370 trees/ha) density. A third density treatment was a HIGH → LOW density, where alternate trees in high-density plots were removed after 6 years to produce a low-density treatment. From 3 to 5 years after planting, trunk cross-sectional areas (TCA) increased most for low-density trees. After 9 years, TCA was greatest for low-density and least for high-density trees. Because of differences in tree training, central-leader trees were taller than open-vase trees and tree spread was greater for low-density than for high-density trees. Annual yield per hectare was 15% to 40% greater for high-density treatments than for low-density treatments, but tree form had little influence on yield. Average fruit weight tended to be greater for low-density than for high-density treatments, but cumulative marketable yield was greatest for high-density and lowest for HIGH → LOW treatments. Income minus costs for 9 years was nearly $4200/ha higher, and net present value was about $2200/ha higher, for open-vase than for central-leader trees (P = 0.08). Cumulative net present value for the 9 years was about $2660/ha higher for high-than for low-density trees (P = 0.36).