Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control and phytotoxicity. During the 1994 season, seven preemergent herbicides, napropamide (Devrinol) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, metolachlor (Pennant) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, isoxaben (Gallery) at 1.1 and 2.3 kg·ha–1, oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, oxyfluorfen + oryzalin (Rout) at 3.4 and 13.6 kg·ha–1, oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.8 and 4.5 kg·ha–1, and trifluralin (Treflan) at 4.5 and 9.1 kg·ha–1, were tested on Aquilegia caerulea `McKana's Giant', Digitalis purpurea, Gaillardia aristata, Limonium latifolium, and Veronica spicata. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and death to Digitalis. Metolachlor (both rates) resulted in plant death to Veronica. Pennant (both rates), when applied to Limonium, resulted in stunted growth. Aquilegia and Gaillardia were not adversely affected. Most herbicides controlled both dicot and monocot weeds effectively.
James E. Klett and David Hillock
Karen L. Panter
Two studies were undertaken to quantify the amount of water used by two container-grown bedding plant crops. Petunia × hybrida cv. Welby Blue and Pelargonium × hortorum cv Red Satisfaction plants were grown in 11-cm pots in a commercial greenhouse in Denver, Colo. In Expt. 1, rooted geranium cuttings and petunia seedlings were planted in Fafard #2, a growing medium containing peat, perlite, and vermiculite. Half of the plants were grown with the substrate covered. Each pot was weighed just prior to, and again 24 h, after watering. Measured amounts of water were applied to the pots. Geraniums in uncovered pots lost an average of 1.7 kg/pot over 59 days. Geraniums in covered pots lost an average of 1.6 kg/pot. Petunias, over 23 days, lost 730 g per uncovered pot and 623 g per covered pot. Experiment 2 compared water loss in growing medium amended with five different hydrophilic gels, and a control with no gel added. With geraniums, no differences were found among treatments in total water loss, initial or final plant height, or fresh or dry plant weight. With petunias, no differences occurred in initial or final height, or fresh or dry weight. There was a difference between two of the gel treatments in total amount of weight lost.
Timothy K. Broschat
required for the production of container-grown tropical ornamental plants. Materials and methods Expt. 1. Liners of areca palm and downy jasmine were transplanted into #2 (6.2-L) plastic containers filled with a 5 pine bark:4 Canadian peat:1 sand (by volume
Joseph C. Neal and Andrew F. Senesac
Preemergent herbicide phytotoxicity was evaluated for six species of container-grown ornamental grasses: beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), pampas grass [Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn.], tufted hair grass [Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauvois.], blue fescue [Festuca ovina cv. glauca (Lam.) W.D.J. Koch], fountain grass [Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.], and ribbon grass (Phalaris arundinacea cv. picta L.). Herbicides included isoxaben, metolachlor, MON 15151, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin; the granular combination products of benefin plus trifluralin; and oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin. Metolachlor, granular or spray, and oryzalin severely injured all species tested, except beachgrass, which was not injured by metolachlor granule. Napropamide injured pampas grass, fountain, grass, blue fescue, and tufted hair grass, but was safe on ribbon grass and beach grass. Pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin; MON 15151, isoxaben, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, and benefin plus trifluralin were safe on all six species. Chemical names used: N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine(benefin);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben);2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyll-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(MON 15151);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitro-benzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).
D.C. Ferree and J.G. Streeter
Container-grown `Chambourcin' grapevines were exposed to soil compaction created by changing soil bulk density to determine the effect of levels of compaction, rootstocks and moisture stress on mineral nutrition, leaf gas exchange and foliar carbohydrate levels. Shoot growth, leaf area, number of inflorescences and leaf dry weight decreased linearly as soil bulk density increased with the effects being significant above 1.4 g·cm-3. The early season leaf area was reduced 40% in the second season, but later leaves were unaffected by a soil bulk density of 1.5 g·cm-3. Net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (E) increased linearly with increasing soil bulk density the first year, but the second year a nonlinear pattern was observed with highest rates at 1.3 and 1.4 g·cm-3. Soil bulk density of 1.5 g·cm-3 reduced number of leaves, leaf area and shoot length and advanced bloom 16 days on `Chambourcin' vines on six rootstocks with no interaction of rootstock and soil compaction. Withholding water for 8 days reduced Pn and E in all treatments, with no effect on shoot length, leaf, stem and total dry weights. Moisture stress in the noncompacted soil caused a reduction in leaf concentration of fructose, glucose and myo-inositol, but moisture stress had no effect in the compacted soil. Moisture stress caused a reduction in sucrose in both compacted and noncompacted soil. Compacting soil to a bulk density of 1.5 g·cm-3 was associated with an increase in leaf N, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn and a decrease in P, K, B, and Mo.
D.C. Ferree, J.G. Streeter and Y. Yuncong
Container-grown apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) trees were exposed to soil compaction created by changing soil bulk density (SBD) to determine the effect of compaction levels, rootstock, and moisture stress on mineral nutrition, leaf gas exchange, and foliar carbohydrate levels. With SBD of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 g·cm-3, there was no interaction of rootstock and soil compaction for growth of `Melrose' trees on nine rootstocks. Trees grown in a SBD of 1.2 g·cm-3 had a greater dry weight than trees at 1.4 g·cm-3 bulk density. Increasing SBD to 1.5 g·cm-3 reduced shoot length, total leaf area, leaf size, and dry weight of leaves, shoots, and roots. The interaction between rootstock and SBD was significant and total dry weight of `B.9', `G.16', `G.30', and `M.7 EMLA' was less influenced by 1.5 g·cm-3 soil than trees on `M.26 EMLA' and `MM.106 EMLA'. Withholding moisture for 10 days at the end of a 70-day experiment caused 8% to 25% reduction in growth in a non-compacted (1.0 g·cm-3) soil with much less effect in a compacted soil. Prior to imposing the moisture stress by withholding water, net photosynthesis (Pn) was reduced 13% and transpiration (E) 19% by increasing bulk density to 1.5 g·cm-3. Following 7 days of moisture stress in non-compacted soil, Pn and E were reduced 49% and 36%, respectively, with no such reductions in the compacted soil. Increasing SBD to 1.5 g·cm-3 caused a decrease in the leaf concentration of quinic acid, myoinositol, and sucrose and an increase in fructose and glucose. Trees growing in 1.5 g·cm-3 had reduced concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, and Zn, and increased P, K, B, and Fe in leaves.
Celina Gómez and James Robbins
affected physical properties for production of container-grown shrubs over long-term crop cycles. Materials and Methods Substrate formulation. A preliminary experiment was conducted to determine the lime rate required to adjust PB (Sun Gro Horticulture
Timothy M. Spann and Holly A. Little
. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments within a rootstock (Tukey's honestly significant difference test, P = 0.05). ET = evapotranspiration. Discussion Container-grown trees can be subjected to moisture extremes not experienced
Kenneth G. McCabe, James A. Schrader, Samy Madbouly, David Grewell and William R. Graves
affecting growers’ willingness to adopt sustainable floriculture practices HortScience 44 1346 1351 Hawkins, G. Burnett, S.E. Stack, L.B. 2012 Survey of consumer interest in organic, sustainable, and local container-grown plants in Maine HortTechnology 22
Thomas Graham, Ping Zhang, Youbin Zheng and Michael A. Dixon
. Dixon, M. Chong, C. Llewellyn, J. 2008 Sensitivity of five container-grown species to chlorine in overhead irrigation water HortScience 43 1882 1887 Chamnongpol, S. Willekens, H. Moeder, W. Langebartels, C. Sandermann, H. Van Montagu, M. Inze, D. Van