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A.M. Akl, Faissal F. Ahmed, Farag M. El-Morsy and Mohamed A. Ragab

The effect of single or combined application of urea-formaldehyde at 80 g N/vine, sulfur at 0.4%, and three compounds of iron (chelated, sequestered, and sulfate forms as 0.1%) on productivity of `Red Roomy' grapevines was studied during 1995 and 1996. A substantial increase in berry set, number of clusters, yield weight of clusters and berries, total soluble solid sugars, and anthocyanins was observed because of the application of these fertilizers singly or in combination. Total acidity in the juice was reduced because of application of these fertilizers. Combined application of urea-formaldehyde, sulfur, and chelated iron gave the best results with regard to yield and quality of berries. An economical yield was obtained on `Red Roomy' vines supplied with urea-formaldehyde at 80 g/vine, sulfur at 0.4%, and chelated iron at 0.1%.

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Lisa C. Berg and Henry R. Owen

Nicotiana tabacum callus growth (fresh weight) was measured after culture in the light (16-hour photoperiod) or in darkness for four different culture media, differing in iron chelate type or concentration. All media contained MS basal medium supplemented with 30 g·L–1 sucrose, 2 mg·L–1 IAA, 0.2 mg·L–1 KIN, and 7 g·L–1 agar, pH 5.8. Three of the media contained iron-metalosate (Albion Laboratories), an organic iron chelate, at 100, 200, and 400 micromolar concentrations, and the fourth medium contained 100 μm Fe-EDTA. Twenty-five culture tubes were prepared for each of the 4 different media concentrations and 2 light treatments (8 treatments total). A 1-cm3 callus explant was used for each treatment and cultured for 56 days at 20°C. About 20-fold increases in callus fresh weight were observed for cultures incubated in light or in darkness. In addition, callus growth was not significantly affected by iron chelate type, suggesting the potential utility of this organic chelator in tissue culture media to alleviate potential problems of light-induced EDTA instability and subsequent IAA inactivation. These cultures are being maintained to examine the influence of iron chelate type on organogenesis.

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Bert Cregg*

Lilac (Syringa vulgaris L) seedlings are commonly grown in many seedling nurseries in Michigan. Typically seedlings are lifted in the fall and stored prior to shipment or stored by the customer. A major problem in field production of lilacs is that seedlings often retain their leaves late in the fall. If the leaves are not removed prior to storage or shipment, the seedlings will mold and deteriorate. Therefore, growers must spend additional labor to remove the leaves, often by hand. The goal of this research was to evaluate chemical alternatives to defoliate lilac seedlings in field nurseries. Two on-farm research trials were conducted in 2001 and 2003 in cooperation with a seedling grower in Saugatuck, MI. In Experiment 1, Florel (1/2 and ¼ dilution) and chelated copper (0.5% and 1% solution) were sprayed by and onto lilac in the seedling bed. Florel and chelated copper effectively reduced leaf area of lilac seedlings. Less than 20% of the initial leaf area remained on the 1% copper and ½ Florel-treated seedlings. The ½ Florel and 1% chelated copper completely defoliated 67% and 40% of the seedlings, respectively, whereas only 17% on the control seedlings lost all their leaves prior to lifting. Both levels of Florel and the 1% copper treatment reduced growth of seedlings after planting. In experiment 2, we applied chelated copper treatments at varying rates (0.25% and 0.5%) and times (1 application and 2 applications) using the cooperators' spray equipment. Repeated applications of chelated copper were more effective in reducing seedling leaf area than a single application at both concentrations tested.

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Amanda J. Vance, Patrick Jones and Bernadine C. Strik

™; California Organic Fertilizers), calcium silicate (Mainstay™, Redox Chemicals, Burley, ID); citric acid chelated calcium (Biomin™; JH Biotech Inc., Ventura, CA), and calcium acetate (CalAce™; Cultivace, Salem, OR) ( Table 3 ). A control where only water was

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Warren C. Stiles

Zinc deficiency is prevalent in apple orchards throughout the Northeast. Zinc contained in various fungicides is partially effective in meeting zinc requirements of apple trees.

Foliar application of EDTA-zinc chelates in two or more post-bloom cover sprays are effective in supplying zinc under most conditions. Alternative materials for such applications are also being studied.

Post-harvest or pre-bloom plus post-harvest applications of alternative sources of zinc did not produce consistent improvement of growth, yield, fruit size or color, or subsequent season zinc levels in leaf samples. Application of chelated zinc through trickle irrigation systems has provided significant improvements in leaf-zinc levels and is considered to be an effective means of supplying this element.

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William B. Beavers, Carl E. Sams, William S. Conway and George A. Brown

Fruit from five apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars were pressure-infiltrated at 103 kPa for 6 min with a 0%, 0.73%, 1.46%, 2.91%, or 5.82% (w/v) Ca-equivalent solution of CaCl2, Ca EDTA chelate, or buffered CaCl2 solution (Stopit). The fruit were stored at 0 ± 1C for 18 weeks and then evaluated for Ca content, firmness, and injury. Fruit treated with Ca chelate had no increase in fruit Ca content and were injured at all treatment levels. No significant differences occurred in fruit Ca levels between CaCl2 and Stopit treatments across all cultivars tested. Apples treated with Stopit were firmer than apples treated with CaCl2, when averaged across cultivars. Fruit Ca levels, firmness, and incidence of injury were positively correlated with concentrations of CaCl2 and Stopit for all cultivars.

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Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust

The activity of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO) was studied in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) buds during dormancy and thidiazuron-induced budbreak. In dormant buds, activity of AAO was low compared with buds that were treated with thidiazuron and had resumed growth. An increase in AAO activity began at the time of metabolic transition from dormancy to budbreak. The highest level of activity was reached 10 days after thidiazuron induction during the expansion growth phase. In vitro AAO activity of apple bud extract was increased by addition of Cu (CuSO) and inhibited by Cu-chelating agents, diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), sodium azide (NaN), and 8-hydroxyquinoiine (8-OH-Q). In vivo treatment of apple buds with Cu-chelating agents inhibited AAO activity and bud growth but not budbreak. Chemical name used: N- phenyl -N' -1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron).

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Joseph P. Albano and William B. Miller

Irradiation of, ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeEDTA, iron chelate)-containing commercial fertilizer solutions by fluorescent plus incandescent lamps resulted in the loss of both FeEDTA and soluble iron (Fe), and the formation of a yellow-tan precipitate that was mostly composed of Fe. The ratio of soluble Fe:manganese (Mn) was altered due to FeEDTA photodegradation from 2:1 in the nonirradiated solutions to 1:4 in the irradiated solutions, respectively. Storing fertilizer solutions in containers that were impervious to light prevented FeEDTA photodegradation.

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Peter H. Dernoeden, Cale A. Bigelow, John E. Kaminski and John M. Krouse

Smooth crabgrass [Digitaria ischaemum (Schreber) Schreber ex Muhlenb.] is an invasive weed of cool-season turfgrasses. Previous research has demonstrated that quinclorac is an effective postemergence herbicide for crabgrass control, but performance has been erratic in some regions. Furthermore, quinclorac may elicit objectionable levels of discoloration in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.). The objectives of this 3-year field study were to determine optimum rates and timings of quinclorac applications that provide consistent levels of effective crabgrass control and to assess creeping bentgrass quality responses to quinclorac. To evaluate crabgrass control, quinclorac was applied in early-, mid- and late-postemergence timings at various rates to a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) turf. Similar treatments were applied to creeping bentgrass to determine if application timing and rate influenced the level and duration of discoloration. Quinclorac was applied alone or was tank-mixed with either urea (N at 6.1 kg·ha-1) or chelated iron (Fe)+nitrogen (N) (FeSO4 at 1.1 kg·ha-1+N at 2.2 kg·ha-1) to determine if they would mask discoloration. Crabgrass control generally was more effective in the early- and midpostemergence application timings. A single application of quinclorac (0.84 kg·ha-1) was effective where crabgrass levels were moderate, but sequential (i.e. multiple) applications were required where crabgrass levels were severe. The most consistent level of crabgrass control where weed pressure was severe occurred with three, sequential quinclorac (0.37 or 0.42 kg·ha-1) applications. Creeping bentgrass exhibited 2 to 11 weeks of unacceptable discoloration in response to sequential quinclorac applications. Chelated Fe+N was more effective than urea in masking discoloration. In general, chelated Fe+N tank-mixed with quinclorac masked discoloration and turf had quality equivalent to untreated bentgrass on most, but not all rating dates. Chemical names used: 3,7,-dichloro-8-quinolinecarboxylic acid (quinclorac).

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Durward Smith and Susan Cuppett

Both fresh and frozen asparagus rapidly deteriorate in quality due, in part, to the formation of oxidative off-flavors. Anti-oxidants and chelating agents prevent lipid oxidation in vegetables, but increasing the levels of such compounds in whole vegetables is difficult. Vacuum infusion was optimized to saturate asparagus spears with ascorbic acid without damaging tissues. The combination of vacuum infusion of ascorbic acid and thermal blanching effectively prevented the formation of oxidative off-flavors and hexanal during frozen storage. Sensory evaluations correlated with hexanal levels following frozen storage.