The color of red potatoes is due to an accumulation of anthocyanins in periderm tissues. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of several factors on tuber redness. Using the red tuber-producing S. tuberosum ssp. tuberosum cultivar Norland, we observed that chroma (intensity of redness) and anthocyanin content of greenhouse-grown tubers decreased as tuber weight increased. There was a slight or no increase in hue (tint). We used HPLC to determine that pelargonidin and peonidin are the major anthocyanidins (aglycones of anthocyanins) in tuber periderm. The ratio of pelargonidin to peonidin increased as tuber weight increased up to 25 g fresh weight. The decrease in chroma was not due to an increase in cell sap pH; we observed a decrease in cellular pH as tuber weight increased. Controlled-atmosphere storage had no effect on tuber chroma or anthocyanin content compared to air storage. Methyl jasmonate, sucrose, or light treatment did not increase anthocyanin accumulation. Tubers exposed to light had less anthocyanin than those kept in the dark. We are examining the developmental expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes, as well as the effect of maize transcription factors on anthocyanin synthesis, in tuber periderm.
Chen-Yi Hung, Cindy B.S. Tong and John R. Murray
Lixiang Miao, Yuchao Zhang, Xiaofang Yang, Jinping Xiao, Huiqin Zhang, Ming Jiang, Zuofa Zhang, Yuezhi Wang and Guihua Jiang
vitamins), strawberry fruits also contain diverse non-nutrient molecules, such as ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and catechin. Phenolic compounds are powerful free radical scavengers and exhibit strong antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant and bioactive
Gad G. Yousef, Mary A. Lila, Ivette Guzman, James R. Ballington and Allan F. Brown
contribute to health (e.g., organic acids, vitamins, proanthocyanidins, stilbenes, and phenolic acids), the primary focus of nutritional and medical research has been on anthocyanins ( Grace et al., 2009 ; Johnson et al., 2013 ; Manach et al., 2005 ; Prior
Courtney A. Weber and William Boone
The role of plant pigments in human health has been under intense scrutiny recently. Anthocyanin pigments have been shown to be powerful antioxidants and may contribute to other areas of human health. In red and black raspberry, Rubus idaeus and Rubus occidentalis, respectively, no less than eight different anthocyanin pigments have been identified. However, the genetics controlling the presence and ratios of the different pigments is poorly understood. Various researchers have identified four loci that impart fruit pigment deficiencies and three loci that affect the pigment ratios. The underlying gene function of these loci is not known. Efforts are under way to map two pigment deficiency loci in red raspberry using bulked segregant analysis. Screening with 800 random primers has produced two markers with >90% and two with >80% correlation to one loci. For the other loci, 10 markers with >80% correlation have been identified. Mapping is ongoing with the first linkage map for raspberry to be presented. Populations to test allelism between sources of pigment deficiency are being evaluated for further mapping of loci of the anthocyanin production pathway. Data on cloning of genes in the anthocyanin pathway based on database sequences with degenerative primers for further elucidation a anthocyanin production in raspberry will be presented.
Gustavo H. de A. Teixeira, Valquiria G. Lopes, Luís C. Cunha Júnior and José D.C. Pessoa
Brazil has great biodiversity of plants, and many fructiferous species are rich in anthocyanins ( Alves et al., 2008 ). Among these species, açaí ( Euterpe oleraceae Mart.) and juçara palm trees ( Euterpe edulis Mart.) produce small, deep purple
Suman Singha, Tara A. Baugher, Edwin C. Townsend and Mervyn C. D'Souza
Fruit of 10 `Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) strains were harvested 149 days after full bloom in 1988. Fruit color was measured at four locations on each fruit at the midpoint between the stem and calyx end with a Minolta CR-200b portable tristimulus calorimeter. Anthocyanin content of corresponding skin disks was determined spectrophotometrically. Significant differences existed among strains in both the amount and distribution of anthocyanin around the fruit. High-coloring strains had a significantly higher anthocyanin concentration at both the blushed and the nonblushed surface when compared to low-coloring strains. A linear regression of anthocyanin content on the ratio of (a*/b*)2 provided an R2 = 0.59; precision was enhanced by using a separate equation for each strain (R2 = 0.80). Regressing log (anthocyanin) on L* using two linear splines yielded an R2 = 0.78. These relationships allow the use of a portable calorimeter for rapid, nondestructive estimation of fruit anthocyanin content in situ.
Andreas Winkler, Max Ossenbrink and Moritz Knoche
up to 97 h. To identify the mechanistic basis of the effect of malic acid on fruit cracking, its effect on membrane leakage in the presence and absence of osmotic stress was studied in ‘Bing’ sweet cherry. The leakage of anthocyanins from discs of
Yan Hong and SiLan Dai
The fruits and flower color of agricultural products are very important for their commercial value. Anthocyanin, one of the key substances that makes plant organs present different colors, is coregulated by the development of the plant itself and
Renata Koyama, Adriane Marinho de Assis, Lilian Yukari Yamamoto, Wellington Fernando Borges, Rogério de Sá Borges, Sandra Helena Prudêncio and Sergio Ruffo Roberto
in grapes are flavonoids (anthocyanins and flavonols), stilbene (resveratrol), phenolic acids (derivatives of cinnamic and benzoic acids), and a wide variety of tannins ( Francis, 2000 ; Naczk and Shahidi, 2004 ). Among these compounds, anthocyanins
SOUR shrivel (H). All compositional attributes of berries pertaining to soluble solids, glucose + fructose, tartaric and malic acids, pH, K, total anthocyanins, and tannins were analyzed by a commercial laboratory (ETS Laboratories, Walla Walla, WA