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Marcelino Bazán-Tene, Jaime Molina-Ochoa and Enrique Alejandro Bracamontes-Ursúa

Hot pepper (HP), Capsicum annuum (L.), is a solanum plant domesticated in Mesoamerica. It is currently widespread worldwide, and its uses are varied, such as an excellent flavoring, pigment base, and as a food resource with source of vitamins. The seven top world producers of HP are China, Mexico, Turkey, Spain, United States, Nigeria, and Indonesia. Mexico is producing about 623,238 t/year of fresh fruits in 136,398 ha; Colima produced 17,181 t in 676 ha, with a mean of 27 t·ha-1. The culture of HP in Colima is facing certain limitations in showing its productive potential, such as maintaining fertile and well-drained soils, and constant soil moisture; being weed-free during the first weeks after transplanting; and sustaining plant uniformity into transplantation. Transplantation is made in seed beds, but there is a lack of scientific evidence on shade requirements in the seed nursery to accelerate and improve plant quality for transplanting, and to impact on fruit yield. The aim was to evaluate the effect of levels of shading on the germination and vegetative development of `Serrano' HP under greenhouse conditions. Four levels of shading were evaluated using mesh fabrics to produce 90%, 75%, and 50% shade, and a control without shading on the seed beds. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications was used. The shading treatments reduced the germination period in about 1 day, increased the percentage of germination with a range between 1.75% and 3.25%; increased the plant height 0.83, 2.85, and 4.38 cm at 3, 6, and 10 days post-emergence; increased the root biomass about 0.01 g/plant, and 0.24 g of fresh foliage with the 90% shade compared with the control. Overall, a better agronomic performance of `Serrano' HP was obtained with 90% shading.

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Marcelino Bazan Tene, Juan Manuel González Gonzalez, Francisco Radillo Juarez, Jorge Pahul Covarrubias Corner and Salvador Guzman Gonzalez

The hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is a plant domesticated in Mesoamerica. Hot pepper is currently widespread worldwide, and its uses are varied, such as for flavoring, pigment base, and as a nutritional food resource. Mexico produces about 623,238 tons/year of fresh fruits in 136,398 ha; the State of Colima produced 17,181 tons in 676 ha, with a mean of 27 t·ha-1. The culture of hot pepper in Colima faces certain limitations to its productive potential, such as lack of fertile and well-drained soils, constant soil moisture, and being free of weeds during the first weeks after transplanting; and maintaining plant uniformity in transplantation. This last practice is carried out in the side bed, but there is a lack of scientific evidence about the requirements of luminosity in the seed nursery in order to accelerate improvement of plant quality for transplanting, and the impact on fruit yield. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on germination and vegetative development of `Jalapeño' hot pepper under greenhouse conditions. Four levels of luminosity were evaluated using mesh fabrics in order to produce 90%, 75%, and 50% shade, and control (0%) without shading on the seed beds. A completely randomized design with four treatments and four replications was used. The shading treatments reduced the germination period in about 2 days; increased the percentage of germination with a range between 1.6% and 3.7%; increased the plant height 2.3, 4.8, 7.72, and 10.1 cm at 3, 7, 13, and 18 days postemergence; increased the root biomass about 7.1 g/plant, and 5.4 g of fresh foliage with the 90% shade treatment in comparison with control. Overall, a better agronomic performance of the `Jalapeño' hot pepper was obtained with 90% shading.

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Rachel E. Rudolph, Carl Sams, Robert Steiner, Stephen H. Thomas, Stephanie Walker and Mark E. Uchanski

, reduce soil erosion, increase water infiltration, decrease nutrient loss by leaching, attract beneficial insects, suppress weeds, and/or suppress soilborne pathogens ( Magdoff and Van Es, 2009 ). In New Mexico, where chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

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Myeong Cheoul Cho*, Taek-Ryoun Kwon*, Tae-Hun Ryu*, Young Chae*, Seung-Ryong Cheong* and Il-Gin Mok*

Genetically modified herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) and non-GM chile pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. `Subicho') were grown in an isolated GMO field to evaluate horticultural characteristics. Phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar gene), which has a function of herbicide-resistance in plant, was introduced into chile pepper plants using the protocol of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Thirty nine characteristics were evaluated, consisting of 14 qualitative, 18 quantitative and 7 other characters. The evaluations were achieved by visual assessment for qualitative characteristics and numerical measurement for quantitative ones. The GMHT and non-GM plants did not differ in the 39 characteristics tested. Pollen viability and germination rate were not significant different between the GMHT plants and the non-GM plants. These results indicated that genetic transformation of bar gene into the chile pepper did not affect those horticultural characteristics and pollen viability.

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Jianhua Liu, Yuzhen Yang and Xuexiao Zou

990 Capsicum annuum varieties were assessed at the seedling stage in greenhouse for their resistance to TMV(T), CMV(C) and anthracnose(A), and their mature (purple-red) fruits were analyzed for the content of dry matter(DM), vitamin C(VC) and capsaicin(CA). The data were eventually analyzed by means of correlation and path coefficient analysis. The result was as follows: the content of DM had little positive effect but significantly (P=O.O1) negative effect on the resistance to TWV, CMV and anthracnose, i.e. Pdt=0.0066, Pdc=(-0 .1364**), Pda=(-0.1881**); whereas the content of VC or CA respectively exerted positive effect, even significantly (P=0.01) positive effect, on the resistance to TMV, CMV and anthracnose, i.e. Pvt=0.0756**, Pvc=0.0093, Pva=0.2069** and Pct=0.2003**, Pcc=0.2300**, Pca=0.0091.

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F.T. Davies Jr., V. Olalde-Portueal, H. M. Escamilla, R.C. Ferrera and M.J. Alvarado

In a 3 × 3 factorial experiment, Chile Ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis) plants were inoculated or not with VA - mycorrhizal (VAM) Glomus fasciculatum and a Glomus sps isolate from Mexico (ZAC-19). Long Ashton Nutrient solution (LANS) were modified to supply P at II, 22 or 44 μg/ml to containerized plants, grown in a greenhouse for 72 days. The container medium was a modified 77% sand, 13% silt, 9% clay soil collected from an agricultural production site in Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. Both P and VAM enhanced plant growth and development. Increasing P enhanced leaf area, fruit, shoot and root dry weight and shoot/root ratio; the leaf area ratio (LAR) decreased. Greater VAM growth enhancement occurred at Il and 22, than 44 μg/ml P. Growth enhancement was greater with Glomus fasciculatum than the mixed Glomus sps isolate (ZAC - 19).

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Andres A. Estrada-Luna, Fred T. Davies Jr. and Jonathan N. Egilla

Micropropagated chile ancho pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis) plants were transferred to ex vitro conditions to study plantlet performance and selected physiological changes that occur during acclimatization and post-acclimatization. The physiology of the plantlets was characterized by measuring leaf gas exchange and water status. Plant growth was determined by assessing plant height, leaf number, total leaf area, relative growth rate (RGR), and leaf, root, and stem dry mass. Measurements were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 days after transplanting. After initial transplanting ex vitro to liner pots with soilless media, plantlet wilting was observed that correlated with reduced leaf relative water content (RWC). Water stress was partially alleviated by a reduction in stomatal conductance (gs), confirming that the in vitro formed stomata were functional and able to regulate transpiration (E) to minimize desiccation losses. Because of this stomatal control, plantlets had minimal transplant shock, recovered, and survived. Prior to transplanting, micropropagated plantlets showed heterotrophic/mixotrophic characteristics as indicated by low photosynthesis [(A) 4.74 μmol·m2·s-1]. During acclimatization, RWC, gs, E, and A were significantly lower 2 days after transplanting. However, within 6 days after transplanting, plantlets recovered and became autotrophic, attaining high A (16.3 μmol·m-2·s-1), gs, and E. The stabilization and improvement of plantlet water status and gas exchange during acclimatization and post-acclimatization closely correlated with dramatic increases in plantlet growth.

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L. Aguilera, F.T. Davies Jr, V. Olalde-Portugal, S.A. Duray and L. Phavaphutanon

Seedlings of Capsicum annuum L. cv. San Luis were grown in pots containing a pasteurized mixture of sand and sandy loam soil inoculated or noninoculated with the V-A mycorrhizal (VAM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck et Smith. Long Ashton nutrient solution (LANS) was modified to supply P at 0, 11 or 44 μg·ml–1. Diurnal gas exchange measurements were taken 15, 30 and 50 days after the experiment was initiated. Plant growth, leaf elemental content, and mycorrhizal development were assessed 52 days after transplanting. Gas exchange and net photosynthesis were enhanced by mycorrhiza and full strength LANS fertilization (44 μg·ml–1). The symbiosis increased leaf nutrient content of P, K, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo, and Al. Mycorrhizal plants had higher shoot dry weights, leaf number, leaf area, and fruit primordia than nonmycorrhizal plants with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. Root colonization (arbuscules, vesicles, and internal and extraradical hyphae development) were higher with P at 0 and 11 μg·ml–1. The quantity of spores recovered in soil was independent of P treatments.