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Jongtae Lee

Onion fertility has been an important subject with regards to onion productivity worldwide. In particular, onion has a shallow branched root system with most roots in the top 30 cm of soil ( Portas, 1973 ; Weaver and Brunner, 1927

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Luther C. Carson and Monica Ozores-Hampton

slowly permeable soil layer (a spodic or textural horizon) located 24 to 36 inches below the bed surface ( Ozores-Hampton et al., 2012 ). Ground or surface water is pumped into field ditches, which then moves horizontally between adjacent ditches (spaced

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Victoria M. Anderson, Douglas D. Archbold, Robert L. Geneve, Dewayne L. Ingram and Krista L. Jacobsen

singularly. However, in systems using biological sources of fertility, nutrient mineralization is mediated by soil microbial activity, which is highly influenced by moisture and temperature ( Drinkwater and Snapp, 2007 ). As such, plant growth and secondary

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Monica Ozores-Hampton

structure, increase soil organic matter (SOM) and fertility, retain moisture, prevent leaching of nutrients, decrease soil density, suppress weeds, increase population of beneficial insects, control erosion, manage plant-parasitic nematodes, increase soil

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Amaya Atucha, Ian A. Merwin and Michael G. Brown

Groundcover management systems are important in fruit production to maintain soil tilth and fertility, reduce weed competition for soil nutrients and water, moderate soil temperature and moisture extremes, provide a habitat for beneficial arthropods

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Timothy W. Coolong and William M. Randle

observations have indicated that Vidalia onions grown on sandy, low-calcium (Ca) soils are softer and more susceptible to disease than on high-Ca soils. Furthermore, greenhouse studies ( Randle, 2005 ) have suggested that Ca status can affect bulb firmness and

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Kimberly A. Moore, Amy L. Shober, Gitta Hasing, Christine Wiese and Nancy G. West

precipitation events and contaminate groundwater systems. Florida’s soils tend to be coarse-textured with low fertility and low water-holding capacity ( Broschat et al., 2008 ). As a result, supplemental nutrients are easily leached downward through the soil

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Jonathan P. Lynch

. Although fertilization has alleviated these constraints in high-input agriculture in rich countries, fertilization is minimal and declining in many food-insecure regions, and globally, soil fertility is declining because of anthropogenic erosion

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Dario Stefanelli, Roberto J. Zoppolo, Ronald L. Perry and Franco Weibel

limited to those approved by recognized certification agencies. Challenges include management of soil fertility and insect pests, diseases, and weeds ( Delate et al., 2008b ). There is a need, therefore, to identify management systems that are productive

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David Granatstein and Kent Mullinix

on previous organic tree fruit grower surveys, the three top production issues identified for Washington were crop load management, weed control, and soil fertility ( Cornwoman and Granatstein, 1994 ; Granatstein, 2003 ). The latter two management