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Matt Stephens, Melody Gray, Edward Moydell, Julie Paul, Tree Sturman, Abby Hird, Sonya Lepper, Cate Prestowitz, Casey Sharber and Aaron Steil

The University of Delaware Botanic Gardens (UDBG) is at a critical juncture in its development. Momentum of shared interest at the University of Delaware and the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources favors the Gardens' advancement as an institution. Having identified endowment planning as a critical and immediate need for UDBG, the goal of this research was to gather pertinent institutional knowledge from select university-based public gardens throughout the United States that had already created an endowment. Key staff were interviewed during the summer of 2005 at Cornell Plantations, JC Raulston Arboretum, Minnesota Landscape Arboretum, and the State Botanic Garden of Georgia. Valuable insights into the procurement and management of endowments within a university-based garden environment were gained through these interviews. Utilizing these results, as well as input from an advisory Task Force, specific recommendations for the University of Delaware Botanic Gardens were made from within the following topic areas: Organizational Structure, Planning, Current Strategies, The Endowment, and The Donor.

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Karen Stoelzle Midden and Mark Hamley

A cooperative project between Turtle Mountain Tribal Community College and Southern Illinois University (SIU) completed a master plan for the Anishinabe Culture and Wellness Center in Belcourt, N.D. The project involved four SIUC undergraduate landscape horticulture students and the researcher visiting the 100-acre site, students and faculty of the Community College, as well as residents of the reservation. The purpose of the project was to: 1) explore developing a distance learning landscape horticulture program as a model project; 2) offer hands-on learning experience for the undergraduates; and 3) develop a master plan for a cultural, wellness, and environmental educational center. Developing the master plan involved four stages conducted by SIUC and Turtle Mountain participants. This included an inventory of the site and surrounding area, visiting classes at Turtle Mountain Tribal College, and interviewing numerous people from the reservation. An analysis was completed to review desired activities, such as a native plant garden, medicine wheel garden, pow wow site, and an outdoor kitchen, in relation to physical and observed features of the site. Environmental concerns, including water quality of the lake, were also addressed in the analysis. A master plan was completed after design concepts were explored. Future goals to complete the Anishinabe project include educational workshops and seeking funds to implement the master plan. Participants felt that the learning exercise for this model project was rewarding and successful. Therefore, SIUC and Turtle Mountain will continue to develop distance learning opportunities for students and potentially invite other tribal colleges with an interest in landscape horticulture to be involved.

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Alvaro del Cid, Ramiro Ortiz and H.R. Valenzuela

PRECODEPA was formed with the purpose of coordinating research and extension to improve small-farm potato production. The program involves 9 countries in North, Central America and the Caribbean with the cooperation of the International Potato Center (CIP). Research and extension work was planed based on identified bottlenecks. Work was coordinated when similar bottlenecks were identified in different regions and/or countries. The project strategies emphasized the following: training of personnel to coordinate the work between extension and research; development of integrated pest management (IPM) practices; technology generation and validation trials on farmers' fields, and market development for commercialization purposes. The success of this unique program should serve as a model for similar agricultural projects in the future.

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Todd C. Wehner, James D. McCreight, Bill B. Rhodes and Xingping Zhang

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), melon (Cucumis melo L.), watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], and luffa (Luffa aegyptiaca Mill) accessions were exchanged between scientists of the United States and the People's Republic of China. Exchanges were made during a July 1994 visit of cucurbit research institutions in Shanghai, ZhengZhou, Yangling, Urumqi, Turpan, ChiangJi City, Tianjin, and Beijing. The trip was coordinated by the Office of International Cooperation and Development, USDA. Chinese scientists received elite American accessions with useful traits, and the American scientists received classic accessions that will be preserved for use in the future by interested researchers. Accessions to be included in the USDA germplasm collection were 50 cucumbers, 30 melons, 51 watermelons, and 15 luffas. As a result of the visit, cucurbit scientists in the two countries learned about the programs of their counterparts, and are planning cooperative research for the future.

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Craig A. Campbell

The purpose of this presentation is to describe the general Field R&D process undertaken by Abbott Laboratories and other agrochemical companies when developing a new plant growth regulator (PGR). A recently registered PGR for citrus named `EcoLyst' is used throughout the presentation as an example of common development strategies. Agrochemical companies acquire many new PGR compounds from outside sources, while others are discovered internally. Internal technology is obviously much simpler to control. In Abbott's case, most of the new PGR compounds are brought in from other places as a result of focused efforts to find new technology for development. Researchers, sales and marketing personnel, and full-time acquisition specialists all share the responsibility for finding new prospect PGRs. After a new PGR is identified, a company like Abbott must first determine if the lead is potentially available, and then, if it has sufficient value to warrant acquisition or in-licensing efforts. Once a PGR passes an initial screening process and is approved for potential development, a coordinated chain of events is initiated throughout the company's organization to accelerate work on the project. Field R&D creates a comprehensive research plan for the PGR that contains development goals. The scope of the research program increases significantly after the first research year, provided results are favorable. University and government scientists are generally brought into the research programs after a year or two of in-house testing. At predetermined control points in the development process, go/no go decisions are made based on reviews of research data, business plans, and regulatory progress.

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Carolyn J. DeMoranville

In Massachusetts, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) bogs were historically developed in existing wetlands and new plantings are now established in mineral soils that are converted into constructed wetlands. To streamline the interaction between cranberry farming and wetlands protection, the state has defined “normal agricultural practices” that are exempt from wetlands regulations under certain circumstances. As part of that process and to qualify for the exemption, farmers are required to have a conservation farm plan and demonstrate the use of best management practices (BMPs) on their farms. The University of Massachusetts Amherst Cranberry Experiment Station (UMass Cranberry Station) was engaged to bring together the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) and cranberry industry representatives to define BMPs specific to cranberry farming practices. Initially, the documents were reviewed by scientists and regulators for soundness of science and rigor of environmental protection. A grower committee reviewed the proposed BMPs to determine if the BMPs could be implemented on real farms. The next stage of the project consisted of defining areas where more research was needed to formulate good BMPs. In particular, research projects were initiated to study nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition. This research has become the basis for nutrition BMPs, national cranberry nutrition guidelines, and standards used by NRCS for cranberry nutrient management plans. The cranberry BMP project has continued with a regular cycle of revision and additions based on grower-identified needs for horticultural and environmental guidance. This connection to the growers, along with the regulatory link, accounts for the widespread adoption of BMPs in the cranberry industry. Local NRCS estimates that 75% to 80% of Massachusetts cranberry growers have current conservation farm plans that include BMP implementation.

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Mahdi Abdal and Majda Sulieman

Agricultural development in Kuwait faces many problems and obstacles, such as limitation of water resources for irrigation, soils conditions, climatic extreme (particularly during the summer periods), and trained labor. With these extreme conditions for agricultural development in Kuwait, there is a strong demand from the public and the government for agricultural activities, particularly in urban landscape and greenery. World travel has enhanced the public's desire for the beautification of the urban areas and has emphasized the importance of the urban landscape. Planning urban landscape and greenery for Kuwait depends on various variables and efficient management of limited resources. Irrigation water is limited in Kuwait, and the quality of water is deteriorating from over-pumping of underground water and increased soil salinity by over irrigation and lack of drainage. Efficient irrigation-water management can be improved in Kuwait with enhanced irrigation research and implementation of the recommendations of this research. Research topics can also include water evaporation, which is high in Kuwait, and the introduction of mulching materials to improve water irrigation efficiency. Most of the soils in Kuwait are sandy with limited organic materials and plant nutrients. Research in soil fertility and plant uptake of nutrients is essential for any agricultural activities. Introducing ornamental plants tolerant to drought, salinity, and heat is a continuous research component of urban landscape and greenery in Kuwait. Training local staff in basic agricultural activities and research development should improve resource management and enhance the greenery of Kuwait.

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Heather Friedrich, Curt Rom, Jennie Popp, Barbara Bellows, Donn Johnson, Dan Horton, Kirk Pomper, David Lockwood, Steve McArtney and Geoffrey Zehnder

Southern organic fruit production is limited by a lack of regionally appropriate, scale-neutral, and market-focused research and technology. There has been limited research, outreach, and cooperation among universities on organic fruit crops in the southern region. Organic research and outreach activities, based on producer input, must be focused on the most limiting areas of the organic system in order to allow southern producers to receive the economic and environmental benefits that organic agriculture can provide. With funding from USDA-SARE and USDA-SRIPMC, researchers at the University of Arkansas have collaborated with scientists, extension specialists, growers, and representatives of the organic industry in Arkansas, Georgia, Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee to create a Southern Region Organic Fruit Working Group (SROFWG). The SROFWG conducted in-state focus group meetings through which barriers to production and marketing, and opportunities for organic fruit in the region were identified. Prioritized research and outreach needs that were identified in the focus groups included use and understanding of organic fertilizers and nutrient management; methods, knowledge and awareness of pest disease and weed control including orchard floor management; information on transition to organic; consumer awareness and market development and the economics of organics. The planning activities of the SROFWG support the development and submission of grants for cooperative and collaborative research and outreach programs to sustain and expand organic fruit production in the southern region.

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James J. Ferguson, Elizabeth Lamb and Mickie Swisher

With funding to increase support for organic farming research at land grant universities, organic growers have collaborated with faculty and administrators to develop an undergraduate, interdisciplinary minor at the University of Florida. Required introductory courses focus on general concepts of organic and sustainable farming, alternative cropping systems, production programs, handling, and marketing issues. An advanced horticulture course requires intensive examination of certification procedures, farm plans, soil fertility, and crop management, all of which are integrated into a required field project. Extension faculty have also fostered development of this new curriculum by coordinating regional workshops and field days in collaboration with organic growers and by developing educational materials on organic certification and related issues.

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J.J. Ferguson, C.L. Taylor and G.D. Israel

Six comprehensive surveys of the Florida citrus industry (345,645 ha), published from 1989 to 1993 as extension bulletins, provide information essential for long-range research and extension program planning and evaluation. These surveys documented changes in production practices, regional priorities for extension programming, marketing trends, and grower ranking of information sources. While formal, comprehensive surveys may be a valuable tool in long-range extension programming for large horticultural industries, more rapid, creative survey methods and educational programs may be needed for more timely programs and for specialized industry groups.