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substrate particles in propagation increases risk of inadequate gas exchange in the substrate. A wide range of substrates and amendments is used during young plant production, including peat (sphagnum), bark, coir, wood fiber, vermiculite, perlite, phenolic

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most cases, a 10% to 30% incorporation rate of alternative aggregates such as biochar, wood chips, or rice hulls, into a peat-based substrate resulted in similar growth when compared with perlite ( Northup 2013 ; Owen 2013 ). Biochar is a charcoal

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A study was conducted to investigate the presence of ericoid mycorrhizal fungi in select peat and peat-based products. Vaccinium corymbosum, a known host of ericoid fungi, was used as a model plant. Peat and peat-based products were obtained from all major sources that supply the northeastern United States. Seedling roots were examined and average percent colonization was determined for each sample. Results indicate that these fungi are present in the majority of peat and peat-based media tested. Seedlings grown in some of the selected media exhibited an increased percentage of colonized root cells. Mycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots of test plants were isolated. These fungi exhibited typical ericoid fungal growth characteristics.

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.125 ppm) Cu to ensure bioavailability in the presence of organic substances. Soilless media often contains high levels of organic matter (OM) from coco coir, peat, pine bark, and/or sawdust. Organic matter has a uniquely high adsorption capacity for Cu

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., 2006 ), heat-expanded slate ( Olszewski et al., 2010 ), Pum ( Ntoulas et al., 2012 , 2013b ), and lava ( Nektarios et al., 2003 ; Tsiotsiopoulou et al., 2003 ). Organic substances, such as peat and composts, have also been used, but at a smaller

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Substrate selection is of major importance in ornamental potted plant production. The substrate should possess the correct physical and chemical characteristics and should drain freely while retaining the correct amount of moisture. Peat has been

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unfriendly disposal of used rockwool, due to its slow decomposition, has become an increasing problem ( Hardgrave and Harriman 1995 ; Nichols and Savidov 2009 ). Peat moss is another commonly used substrate, offering an option to rockwool in commercial

Open Access

Abstract

Water-holding capacity, evaporation rate from mulch slurries, and the effect of mulches on soil water loss was determined for peat, coarse paper-fiber, fine paper-fiber, and 2 commercial mulches. Evaporation rate decreased when a mulch exhibited a low water-holding capacity, long fibers, and was applied dry rather than in a slurry. A commercial mulch consisting of straw and hay fibers, cotton, and wastepaper had the lowest water-holding capacity, longest fibers, and the greatest evaporation control.

Open Access

Peat moss has historically been the primary component of soilless substrates used in horticultural plant production due to the ideal physical and chemical properties, demonstrated success in crop production, and widespread availability of this

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.) decreased the pH in peat: perlite substrate. In both substrate ( Johnson et al., 2013 ) and hydroponic nutrient solution ( Dickson et al., 2016 ), geranium ( Pelargonium × hortorum Bailey L.H.) was acidic and decreased the pH compared with petunia which

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