shows a sample design created by a student in HORT 1013 Floral Design, showcasing the GMO violet standard and miniature carnation. Students observed designs similar to this to draw their conclusions on policy formulation of GMO flowers in the retail
Neil O. Anderson and Natalie J. Walker
Harry K. Tayama and Stephen A. Carver
A series of crop-specific, resin-coated, controlled-release fertilizer formulations, including: Sierra Geranium Mix 13-12-11 Plus Minors, Sierra Chrysanthemum Mix 12-10-17 Plus Minors, and Sierra Poinsettia Mix 12-12-15 Plus Minors were preplant-incorporated into Metro Mix 350 growing medium for the production of potted zonal geraniums, chrysanthemum, and poinsettia. Plant growth and foliar nutritional responses were compared to those obtained from plants produced with a standard resin-coated, controlled-release Osmocote formulation (19N-6P-12K), water-soluble Peters 20N-10P-20K, and a combination of water-soluble and resin-coated treatments. Crops produced with specialty resin-coated mixes (at recommended rate = l×) were equal in growth and flowering characteristics to those produced with Osmocote (1×), water-soluble (200 ppm nitrogen), or a combination of water-soluble (200 ppm nitrogen) and resin-coated (0.5×) fertilizer treatments. Foliar analyses revealed elemental concentrations in resin-coated fertilizer-treated plants were below those in water-soluble or combination treatments, but were within a range to support satisfactory quality crop production.
Deepu Mathew, Zakwan Ahmed and N. Singh
The phenomenon of flowering and aerial bulbil production in Asiatic garlic was observed under long photoperiodic conditions of Ladakh, India. Flowers were sterile and the bulbils produced on the umbel were true to type. Observations on a large number of flowering and nonflowering plants have led to the formulation of a precise flowering index (FI) in garlic. Plants with a minimum leaf number of 7, height 25 cm, collar width 0.6 cm, bulb diameter 3.7 cm, bulb weight 22.5 g, and functional leaf area of 182.4 cm2 had only shown the flowering. The flowering index formulated was a product of leaf number, plant height, functional leaf area, and bulb weight. For flowering, FI should be more than 788, and availability of a minimum photoperiod of 4020 hours during a growth period of 11 months was another prerequisite. Nonfulfillment of any one of the factors of flowering, although FI and photoperiod were satisfactory, led to nonflowering. Garlic aerial bulbil yield was positively correlated with leaf number, plant height, bulb weight, bulb diameter, length of flower stalk, 100 seed weight, and head diameter. Following the multiple regression model y = –11.9 – (0.00031 × number of bulbils) + (0.147 × 100 bulbil weight) + (4.95 × head diameter) + (0.0460 × length of flower stalk), aerial bulbil yield prediction was possible at a mean accuracy of 87%.
Robert E. Call and Jack W. Jenkins
Mating disruption of codling moth using codlemone pheromoneemitting twist-ties or cards has become a standard practice in many orchards. This study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of NoMate CM EC, a spray formulation of codlemone pheromone. Treatments were applied 20–21 Apr. 1995 to plots measuring 99 × 244 m of 15-year-old `Golden Delicious' apple trees on seedling rootstock. Trees were spaced 3.7 × 5.5 m and treatments were made in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Whole trees were sprayed to run-off using a handgun. Treatments were 20.2 g a.i. NoMate CM EC/h and a watered sprayed control. Two pheromonebaited, sticky traps were placed in each replicate to monitor codling moth activity. Moth counts were made 3 days after treatment and continued twice weekly for 4 weeks. Results indicated very little moth activity for the first 14 days of the study in plots treated with NoMate CM EC when compared to the control. However, after the first two weeks differences between treatments were not significant.
Michael P. Harvey, George C. Elliott and Mark H. Brand
The shade-tolerant, variegated grass Hakonechloa macra `Aureola' is a valuable ornamental. In an experiment replicated in two growing seasons, Hakonechloa plants were fertilized at each irrigation (fertigation) with factorial combinations of three fertilizer formulations (N:P molar ratios 5:1, 10:1, and 20:1) at five N concentrations (2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 mmol·L-1), along with an unfertilized control, to determine the effect of N:P ratio and N concentration on vegetative growth and to establish fertility guidelines for production. Root dry weight and tiller bud growth increased slightly as N:P ratio increased. Fertilizer N concentration of 16 mmol·L-1 promoted the most shoot growth, whereas the number of tiller buds and root growth were greatest at 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 N. No interaction occurred between N:P ratio and fertilizer concentration. Results indicate that an N concentration of 8 mmol·L-1, with an N:P ratio of 10:1 or 20:1 is optimal for production of Hakonechloa. At this fertilizer concentration, the mean electrical conductivity of extracts obtained by a solution displacement extraction (pour-through) procedure was 2.3 ± 0.45 dS·m-1 (mean ± standard deviation). Tissue nutrient concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were (in mg·g-1): 24.0, 2.8, 14.3, 2.1, and 2.1, respectively. In a concurrent study, Hakonechloa plants were grown in pine bark: peat: sand mix with dolomitic lime added at 0, 1.2, 3.6, and 9.5 kg·m-3 producing pH ranging from ≈4.5 to 7.2. Growth of Hakonechloa was greatest with no lime (pH 4.5) and declined markedly as the rate of lime increased. Concentrations of N, P, and K in shoot tissue were greatest at a pH between 4.5 and 5.6 (0 and 1.2 kg·m-3 dolomitic lime). These findings clearly support recommending production of Hakonechloa in soilless potting mix with pH ≈4.5 and constant fertigation with N at 8 mmol·L-1.
W. L. Corley
Contrary to popular notion, many wildflower taxa are quite specific in their edaphic requirements. From a compilation of 35 species adapted to Georgia and the Southeastern U.S., several mixes have been formulated to meet the siting preference of these taxa whose persistence may be annual, biennial, or perennial. Mixes presented are suited for landscape color, partial shade, xeric, mesic, aggressive, and specialty uses.
M.L. Albrecht, J.T. Lehmann and D.M. Crockett
John M. Smagula and David Yarborough
Experimental plots in a commercial lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) field deficient in N and P received preemergent 33.6 and 67.2 kg/ha rates of N (urea), P (23 % phosphoric acid), N+P (DAP), N+P+K (S-10-5) or N+P+K (fish hydrolysate, 2-4-2). A RCB design with eight replications of 12 treatments was used. Fertilizer containing N alone was as effective in raising N leaf concentrations, as those containing N and P. However, leaf phosphorus concentrations were raised more by fertilizer providing N and P than only P. Fish hydrolysate fertilizer was as effective as 5-10-5 in raising leaf N, P and K concentrations in prune and crop year leaf samples.
John M. Ruter
A study was conducted to compare four different controlled-release fertilizers when used in conjunction with Tex-R Geodiscs on the growth of Ilex crenata Thunb. ex J.A. Murray `Compacta' in 3.8 L (#1) containers. The fertilizers used were Osmocote Plus Southern Formula (18N-3.9P-10K), Osmocote Plus Northern Formula (18N-3.9P-10K), Wilbro (15N-1.7P-7.5K), and Nutricote T-360 (17N-2.6P-6.6K) all applied at the rate of 1.8 kg N/m3. Geodisc treatments were: 1) no disc, 2) fertilizer placed on top of the disc, and 3) fertilizer placed beneath the disc. At 2 and 4 months after the initiation of the study, the growth indices for plants grown with both Osmocote Plus fertilizers were larger than for either of the other two fertilizers. After 7 months, final growth indices were greater for the Osmocote Plus and Wilbro treatments compared to Nutricote. Final leaf, stem, and root dry masses were all greater for the Osmocote Plus fertilizers compared to the other two, as was final plant quality. Plants with fertilizer placed on top of the disc were smaller compared to the no disc or beneath the disc treatments. Geodisc treatment had no influence on shoot dry mass or final plant quality. Data for leachate nutrient analysis and evapotranspiration will also be presented.