expansion of southern highbush blueberry acreage targeted for this early market is anticipated ( Strik and Yarborough, 2005 ; U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2007 ; Williamson and Lyrene 2004a ). Pine bark culture is currently the most common method for
). Although the insect morphology suggested the unknown scale on Spiraea were CMBS, observational evidence still has limitations in its ability to identify species. For example, the azalea bark scale, a close relative of CMBS, is often mistaken as CMBS
relatively novel idea ( Fulcher et al., 2015 ). Substrate mixes used in nurseries frequently contain peatmoss, coir, bark, and/or perlite, but it is unclear whether these components are also suitable for longer term fruit production of blueberry. Partially
( Evans and Stamps, 1996 ; Frenkel et al., 2017 ). Many alternatives exist that are arguably more sustainable, including coconut fiber (coir) and milled tree bark. Pine bark has been used in Mexico and the United States for several decades ( Madrid
vanilla showed antimicrobial effects ( Ahmad and Prasad, 1995 ; Damayanti et al., 1996 ; Kyu Kyu Win et al., 2007 ; Neri et al., 2007 ). Phellodendron bark, considered an important Chinese herb, was commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for
Ornamental container crops in the Pacific Northwest are grown primarily in douglas fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). Similar to pine ( Pinus taeda L.) bark in the southeast United States, DFB comprises the highest portion
Pine bark is the primary component in container nursery substrates, comprising 60% to 80% by volume of most substrate blends. Pine bark is a commodity used by other industries including fuel generation, fiber ( Lu et al., 2006 ), charcoal, landscape
-rich by-product of pyrolysis, can reduce substrate pore size by nesting between larger particles of pine bark and providing greater water-holding capacity. This reduction in substrate pore size has been demonstrated to increase the amount of available
The external surfaces and internal structures of particles of milled pine bark (Pinus taeda L. and P. elliottii Engelm.) were examined with scanning electron microscopy. Numerous external openings, cracked cell walls and internal cellular connections, that might allow water penetration were observed. Periderm surfaces were without pores, and contained rough surfaces and apparently waxy substances that might resist water penetration or absorption.
The pistachio (Pistacia vera L.), characteristically a biennial bearer, produces its most extensive shoot growth in years of heavy crop production. Whereas levels of total sugars in bark and wood of bearing and nonbearing branches were similar throughout the year, starch levels tended generally to be higher in nonbearing than in bearing branches. Consequently, nonbearing branches one year gave rise to heavy crops the next and, beacuse of greater quantities of reserve foods, also produced extensive shoot growth. Bearing branches of that same year, .however, produced few or no nuts the next and, because of lesser quantities of reserve foods, produced markedly less shoot growth. No relationship between total nitrogen level and shoot growth or fruiting was evident.